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UNIX File Systems (Chap 4. in the book “the design of the UNIX OS”) PowerPoint Presentation
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UNIX File Systems (Chap 4. in the book “the design of the UNIX OS”)

UNIX File Systems (Chap 4. in the book “the design of the UNIX OS”)

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UNIX File Systems (Chap 4. in the book “the design of the UNIX OS”)

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  1. UNIX File Systems(Chap 4. in the book “the design of the UNIX OS”) Acknowledgement : Soongsil Univ. Presentation Materials

  2. File System • Abstraction used by the kernel to represent and organize the system’s storage resources • Properties • Hierarchical structure • Ability to create and delete files • Dynamic growth of files • Protection of file data • Treatment of peripheral devices as files

  3. UNIX File System Overview

  4. UNIX File System Overview

  5. File System Layout

  6. Sample File System

  7. Table of Contents • Inodes • Structure of a regular file • Directories • Conversion of a path name to an Inode • Super block • Inode assignment to a new file • Allocation of disk blocks • Other file types • Summary

  8. Summary • Inode is the data structure that describes the attributes of a file, including the layout of its data on disk. • Two version of the inode • Disk copy : store the inode information when file is not in use • In-core copy : record the information about active files. • ialloc/ifree : assignment of a disk inode • iget/iput : allocation of in-core inodes • bmap : locate disk blocks of a file, according to byte offset • Directories : files that correlate file name components to inode numbers • namei : convert file names to inodes • alloc/free : assignment of new disk blocks to a file

  9. Table of Contents • Inodes • Structure of a Regular File • Directories • Conversion of a Path Name to an Inode • Super Block • Inode Assignment to a New File • Allocation of Disk Blocks • Other File Types • Summary

  10. Definition of Inodes • Every file has a unique inode • Contain the information necessary for a process to access a file • Exist in a static form on disk • Kernel reads them into an in-core inode to manipulate them.

  11. Contents of Disk Inodes • File owner identifier (individual/group owner) • File type (regular, directory,..) • File access permission (owner,group,other) • File access time • Number of links to the file (chap5) • Table of contents for the disk address of data in a file (byte stream vs discontiguous disk blocks) • File size * Inode does not specify the path name that access the file

  12. File owner identifier File type File access permission File access time Number of links to the file Table of contents for the disk address of data in a file File size Owner mjb Group os Type regular file Perms rwxr-xr-x Accessed Oct 23 1984 1:45 P.M Modified Oct 22 1984 10:3 A.M Inode Oct 23 1984 1:30 P.M Size 6030 bytes Disk addresses Sample Disk Inode

  13. Distinction Between Writing Inode and File • File change only when writing it. • Inode change when changing the file, or when changing its owner, permisson,or link settings. • Changing a file implies a change to the inode, • But, changing the inode does not imply that the file change.

  14. Contents of The In-core copy of The Inode • Fields of the disk inode • Status of the in-core inode, indicating whether • Inode is locked • Process is waiting for the inode to become unlocked • Differ from the disk copy as a result of a change to the data in the inode • Differ from the disk copy as a result of a change to the file data • File is a mount point

  15. Contents of The In-core copy of The Inode • Logical device number of the file system • Inode number (linear array on disk, disk inode not need this field) • Pointers to other in-core inodes • Reference count

  16. Accessing Inodes • Kernel identifies inodes by their file system and inode number • Allocate in-core inodes at the request of higher-level algorithms (in-core inode, by iget algorithm) • Kernel maps the device number & inode number into a hash queue • Search the queue for the inode • …

  17. Block Number & Byte Offset • Computing logical disk block number • Block number = ((inode number –1) / number of inodes per block) + start block inode list • Computing byte offset of the inode in the block • ((inode number –1) mod (number of inodes per block)) * size of disk inode

  18. Inode Lock and Reference Count • Kernel manipulates them independently • Inode lock • Set during execution of a system call to prevent other processes from accessing the inode while it is in use. • Kernel releases the lock at the conclusion of the system call • Inode is never locked across system calls. • Reference count • Kernel increase/decrease when reference is active/inactive • Prevent the kernel from reallocating an active in-core inode

  19. Table of Contents • Inodes • Structure of a Regular File • Directories • Conversion of a Path Name to an Inode • Super Block • Inode Assignment to a New File • Allocation of Disk Blocks • Other File Types • Summary

  20. Inode Data Blocks direct0 direct1 direct2 direct3 direct4 direct5 direct6 direct7 direct8 direct9 single indirect double indirect triple indirect Direct and Indirect Blocks in Inode

  21. Byte Capacity of a File • System V UNIX. Assume that • Run with 13 entries • 1 logical block : 1K bytes • Block number address : a 32 bit (4byte) integer • 1 block can hold up to 256 block number (1024byte / 4byte) • 10 direct blocks with 1K bytes each=10K bytes • 1 indirect block with 256 direct blocks= 1K*256=256K bytes • 1 double indirect block with 256 indirect blocks=256K*256=64M bytes • 1 triple indirect block with 256 double indirect blocks=64M*256=16G • Size of a file : 4G (232), if file size field in inode is 32bits

  22. Byte Offset and Block Number • Process access data in a file by byte offset. • The file starts at logical block 0 and continues to a logical block number corresponding to the file size • Kernel accesses the inode and converts the logical file block into the appropriate disk block (bmap algorithm)

  23. Conversion of Byte Offset to Block Number Algorithm bmap /* block map of logical file byte offset to file system block */ Input : inode, byte offset Output: (1)block number in file system, (2)byte offset into block, (3)bytes of I/O in block, (4)read ahead block number calculate logical block number in file from byte offset; calculate start byte in block for I/O; /* output 2 */ calculate number of bytes to copy to user; /* output 3 */ check if read-ahead applicable, mark inode; /* output 4*/ determine level of indirection; while(not at necessary level of indirection) calculate index into inode or indirect block from logical block number in file; get disk block number from inode or indirect block; release buffer from previous disk read, if any (algorithm brelse); if(no more levels of indirection) return (block number); read indirect disk block (algorithm bread); adjust logical block number in file according to level of indirection;

  24. 4096 228 45423 0 0 11111 0 101 367 0 428 9156 824 367 Data block 3333 0 75 331 3333 Data block 331 Single indirect 9156 Double indirect Block Layout of a Sample File and Its inode 0 Byte 9000 in a file -> 8block 808th byte 8 8 816th byte (10K+256K) Byte 350,000 in a file 11

  25. Block Entry in the Inode is 0 • Logical block entry contain no data. • Process never wrote data into the file at that byte offset • No disk space is wasted • Cause by using the lseek and write system call

  26. Two Extensions to the inode Structure • 4.2 BSD file system • The more data the kernel can access on the disk in a single operation, the faster file access becomes • But it increase block fragmentation • Solution : one disk block can contain fragments belonging to several files • To store file data in the inode • By expanding the inode to occupy an entire disk block • The remainder can store the entire file

  27. Table of Contents • Inodes • Structure of a Regular File • Directories • Conversion of a Path Name to an Inode • Super Block • Inode Assignment to a New File • Allocation of Disk Blocks • Other File Types • Summary

  28. Directories • A directory is a file • Its data is a sequence of entries, each consisting of an inode number and the name of a file contained in the directory • Path name is a null terminated character string divided by “/” • Each component except the last must be the name of a directory, last component may be a non-directory file

  29. Directory Layout for /etc

  30. Table of Contents • Inodes • Structure of a Regular File • Directories • Conversion of a Path Name to an Inode • Super Block • Inode Assignment to a New File • Allocation of Disk Blocks • Other File Types • Summary

  31. Algorithm for Conversion of a Path Name to an Inode Algorithm namei /* convert path name to inode */ Input : path name Output : locked inode { if(path name starts from root) working inode = root inode (algorithm iget); else working inode = current directory inode (algorithm iget); while(there is more path name){ read next path name component from input; verify that working inode is of directory,access permission OK; if(working inode is of root and component is “..”) continue; /* loop back to while */ read directory (working inode) by repeated use of algorithms bmap,bread and brelse; …

  32. Algorithm for Conversion of a Path Name to an Inode if(component matches an entry in directory (working inode)){ get inode number for matched component; release working inode (algorithm iput); working inode=inode of matched component(algorithm iget); } else /* component not in directory return (no inode); } return (working inode); }

  33. Table of Contents • Inodes • Structure of a Regular File • Directories • Conversion of a Path Name to an Inode • Super Block • Inode Assignment to a New File • Allocation of Disk Blocks • Other File Types • Summary

  34. Super block • File System • Consists of • the size of the file system • the number of free blocks in the file system • a list of free blocks available on the file system • the index of the next free block in the free block list • the size of the inode list • the number of free inodes in the file system • a list of free inodes in the file system • the index of the next free inode in the free inode list • lock fields for the free block and free inode lists • a flag indicating that the super block has been modified boot block super block inode list data blocks

  35. Table of Contents • Inodes • Structure of a Regular File • Directories • Conversion of a Path Name to an Inode • Super Block • Inode Assignment to a New File • Allocation of Disk Blocks • Other File Types • Summary

  36. Inode Assignment to a New File • File system contains a linear list of inodes • Inode is free : its type field is zero (0) • Super block contains an array to cache the numbers of free inodes in the file system (to improve performance)

  37. Algorithm for Assigning New Inodes Algorithm ialloc /* allocate inode */ Input : file system Output : locked inode { while(not done){ if(super block locked) { sleep(event super block becomes free); continue; } if(inode list in super block is empty){ lock super block; get remembered inode for free inode search; search disk for free inodes until super block full, or no more free inodes (bread and brelese); unlock super block; wake up (event super block becomes free); if(no free inodes found on disk) return (no inode); set remembered inode for next free inode search; }

  38. Algorithm for Assigning New Inodes /* there are inodes in super block inode list */ get inode number from super block inode list; get inode (algorithm iget); if(inode not free after all) { write inode to disk; release inode (algorithm iput); continue; /* while loop */ } /* inode is free */ initialize inode; write inode to disk; decrement file system free inode count; return (inode); } // end of while }

  39. Super Block Free Inode List free inodes 83 48 empty 18 19 20 array1 index Super Block Free Inode List free inodes 83 empty 18 19 20 array2 index Assigning Free Inode from Middle of List

  40. Super Block Free Inode List 470 empty 0 array1 remembered inode index Super Block Free Inode List array2 535 free inodes 476 475 471 0 48 49 50 index Assigning Free Inode – Super Block List Empty

  41. Algorithm for Freeing Inode Algorithm ifree /* inode free */ Input : file system inode number Output : none { increment file system free inode count; if(super block locked) return; if(inode list full){ if(inode number less than remembered inode for search) set remembered inode for search = input inode number; } else store inode number in inode list; return; }

  42. 535 476 475 471 499 476 475 471 499 476 475 471 free inodes free inodes free inodes remembered inode remembered inode remembered inode index index index Original Super Block List of Free Inodes Free Inode 499 Free Inode 601 Placing Free Inode Numbers Into the Super Block

  43. Table of Contents • Inodes • Structure of a Regular File • Directories • Conversion of a Path Name to an Inode • Super Block • Inode Assignment to a New File • Allocation of Disk Blocks • Other File Types • Summary

  44. Super block list 109 106 103 100 ………………………….. 211 208 205 202 …………………… 112 310 307 304 301 …………………… 214 409 406 403 400 …………………… 313 109 211 310 Linked List of Free Disk Block Numbers

  45. Algorithm for Allocating Disk Block Algorithm alloc /* file system block allocation */ Input : file system number Output : buffer for new block { while(super block locked) sleep (event super block not locked); remove block from super block free list; if(removed last block from free list){ lock super block; read block just taken from free list (algorithm bread); copy block numbers in block into super block; release block buffer (algorithm brelse); unlock super block; wake up processes (event super block not locked); } …

  46. Algorithm for Allocating Disk Block … get buffer form block removed from super block list (algorithm getblk); zero buffer contents; decrement total count of free blocks; mark super block modified; return buffer; }

  47. Requesting and Freeing Disk Blocks super block list 109 ………………………………………………………… 109 211 208 205 202 …………………………….. 112 original configuration 109 949 ………………………………………………….. 109 211 208 205 202 ………………………………. 112 After freeing block number 949

  48. Requesting and Freeing Disk Blocks 109 ……………………………………………………….. 109 211 208 205 202 ………………………………. 112 After assigning block number(949) 211 208 205 202 ……………………………… 112 211 344 341 338 335 ………………………………. 243 After assigning block number(109) replenish super block free list

  49. Table of Contents • Inodes • Structure of a regular file • Directories • Conversion of a path name to an Inode • Super block • Inode assignment to a new file • Allocation of disk blocks • Other file types • Summary

  50. Other File Types • Pipe • fifo(first-in-first-out) • Its data is transient: once data is read from a pipe, it cannot be read again • Use only direct block (not the indirect block) • Special file • block device, character device • The inode contains the major and minor device number • Major number indicates a device type such as terminal or disk • Minor number indicates the unit number of the device