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The Russian Revolution. Chapter 30. Russia in Turmoil. 1825 – Russian army officers revolted 1861 – Czar Alexander II “frees” the serfs 1881 – Alexander II assassinated Alexander III returned to full autocracy 1894 – Nicholas II become Czar (autocratic)

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russia in turmoil
Russia in Turmoil
  • 1825 – Russian army officers revolted
  • 1861 – Czar Alexander II “frees” the serfs
  • 1881 – Alexander II assassinated
    • Alexander III returned to full autocracy
  • 1894 – Nicholas II become Czar (autocratic)
  • 1904 – 1905 – Russia loses the Russo-Japanese War
  • January 22, 1905 – Bloody Sunday Revolution
  • 1914 – Russia enters World War I
russo japanese war 1904 05
Russo-Japanese War (1904-05)

First time since the Mongols that a European power

lost to an Asian power – huge embarrassment to Russia

revolution of 1905
Revolution of 1905

“Bloody Sunday”

fall of the czar
Fall of the Czar
  • World War I was a huge burden on Russia
    • Heavy losses, little supplies
  • 1916 – beginning of the end for Czar Nicholas II and Alexandra
    • War became more and more unpopular
    • Influence of Grigori Rasputin
  • By March of 1917, the Russian people were rioting against the czar (soldiers began to join them)
  • March 15, 1917 – Nicholas II abdicates his throne
    • Ends 300 years of the Romanov dynasty
slide6

Nicholas II of Russia and

Family

Olga, Maria, Nicolas, Alexandra, Anastasia, Alexis, Tatiana

1914 russia enters world war i on the allied side
1914 – Russia Enters World War I on the Allied Side

Russian soldiers surrendering to the Germans at the Battle of Tannenberg (1914)

Czar Nicholas II left the government in his wife’s hands in order to lead the Russian troops against Germany

rasputin
Rasputin
  • Rasputin put the monarchy under further suspicion
    • Had the alleged ability to stop Alexei's bleeding and alleviate his pain
    • Was corrupt, promiscuous, and made bad policy decisions
  • Was assassinated by a group of Russian nobles in 1916
february revolution
February Revolution
  • March of 1917: workers striking and people rioting in Petrograd (St. Petersburg)
  • Nicholas tried to dismiss the Duma (legislature), but they refused to obey and Nicholas abdicated
  • FYI - Russia uses a slightly different calendar
    • February Revolution = March in the west
    • October Revolution = November
the provisional government
The Provisional Government
  • Middle-class took over the government
  • Challenged by socialist groups (Petrograd Soviets)
    • Wanted land given to serfs
    • Wanted factories given to the workers
  • Alexander Kerensky main leader during provisional gov’t
  • Provisional gov’t did not withdraw from war, angered Russian people
  • Germany sends Lenin out of exile in Switzerland – helps him sneak into Russia, he plots to overthrow the government
lenin
Lenin
  • Mensheviks – socialist group that wanted change through the masses
  • Bolsheviks – small, radical force that wanted to bring socialism through force
  • Vladimir Ilyich Lenin made plans to lead Bolsheviks into power
    • Brother was hanged for attempted assassination of a czar
    • Exiled in 1895 (Switzerland)
    • Germans help him return in 1917 to lead Bolsheviks
the bolshevik revolution
The Bolshevik Revolution
  • Provisional gov’t tried to put down Bolsheviks
  • Bolsheviks lead coup d’etat in November 1917
  • Set-up Communist nation
    • Ended private ownership of property
    • Wanted to spread movement around the world
october revolution succeeds
October Revolution Succeeds
  • November 6, Trotsky organizes a putsch that succeeds
  • Bolsheviks disband the new legislature in which they were a minority
the bolsheviks act decisively
The Bolsheviks Act Decisively
  • Nationalized land and turned it over to peasants
  • Factory workers put in charge of plants
  • Banks taken from owners and seized for state
  • National debt repudiated
  • Church property confiscated
  • Took Russia out of WWI
civil war
Civil War
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March, 1918) – Lenin signs treaty with Germany
    • Lost a great deal of territory
    • Nationalist movements in eastern empire (see map of 1918)
  • Civil War
    • Reds – Communists (Lenin and Trotsky)
    • Whites – wanted to get rid of Communists and re-enter WWI (supported by allied powers)
    • Three years of fighting destroys nation
murder of the czar and his family
Murder of the Czar and His Family
  • On the night of July 16th or 17th, 1918, the last Russian Tsar and all his family, including the gravely ill Alexei, along with several family servants, were executed by firing squad in the basement of the Ipatiev House in Yekaterinburg (where they had been imprisoned) by a detachment of Bolsheviks.
  • NO ONE SURVIVED!

Last known photo ofNicholas II

russian civil war 1918 22
Russian Civil War: 1918-22

“Reds v. Whites”

  • Red Army organized by Trotsky; the Bolsheviks
  • “Whites” disorganized; strange coalition of Czarists, moderate socialists, and supporters of democracy
  • Mainly American and Japanese troops landed to help crush Bolshevism, but just inspired nationalism; The Red Army was victorious, but millions of Russians died due to the civil war
bolsheviks win the civil war
Bolsheviks win the Civil War
  • The Terror
    • Lenin uses “war communism”
    • 1918 – killed czar and his family
    • Cheka arrested anyone accused of being an “enemy of the revolution”
    • Restricted religion
  • By 1921, Lenin had entire country under Communist control
    • Russia becomes the Soviet Union or the U.S.S.R.
    • Lenin dies in January, 1924
      • Sets off power struggle between Trotsky and Josef Stalin
stalinist russia

Stalinist Russia

Totalitarianism at its finest

terms to know for stalinist russia
Terms to know for Stalinist Russia
  • Totalitarianism = government that has complete central control over all aspects of public and private life
  • Indoctrination = creating completely loyal support through education and glorification of leaders
    • Use of propaganda and censorship
  • Persecution = relocation, special laws, and violence used against “enemies of the state”
    • Usually blamed ethnic or religious groups for problems
stalin becomes a totalitarian leader
Stalin becomes a totalitarian leader
  • Wanted to create a perfect communist state
  • Police State
    • Great Purge (1934 – 1938): put on trial anyone (even Bolshevik Revolutionaries) that Stalin thought threatened his power
      • Millions executed or sent to labor camps (gulags)
      • Estimated 8 – 13 million killed
  • Propaganda and Censorship
    • Stalin’s government controlled all media
  • Education and Indoctrination
    • Controlled from nursery school through universities
  • Religious Persecution
    • Destroyed churches and synagogues
    • Spread propaganda supporting atheism

Stalin’s Spies

stalin s gulags
Stalin’s Gulags

Work Camps

Famine Victims

stalin s command economy
Stalin’s Command Economy
  • Government made all economic decisions
    • What was produced, sold, and what prices
  • Five-Year Plans
    • Series of plans to increase industrialization in the country
    • Sacrificed consumer goods for industrial goods
      • Shortages of housing, food, clothing, etc.
  • Collective Farming
    • Hundreds of family forced to produce food for the state
    • Those that resisted were eliminated (5 – 10 million died)
    • State farms run like factories, even larger
    • Production did increase
life in stalinist russia
Life in Stalinist Russia
  • Production, education, and skills increased
  • Freedoms and consumer goods decreased
  • Women gain more education, jobs and rights
  • Women expected to provide future citizens
  • Stalin had created a totalitarian state the made him in complete control