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Teaching in the Target Language can be Done!. Khaled Huthaily, Ed.D. Assistant Professor of Arabic & Educational Linguistics Central and Southwest Asia Program The University of Montana. Brainstorming. What is this presentation about? What is the “problem”? Why is it a “problem”?.

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teaching in the target language can be done

Teaching in the Target Languagecan be Done!

Khaled Huthaily, Ed.D.

Assistant Professor of Arabic & Educational Linguistics

Central and Southwest Asia Program

The University of Montana

brainstorming
Brainstorming
  • What is this presentation about?
  • What is the “problem”?
  • Why is it a “problem”?
research and commonsense
Research and Commonsense
  • Ellis, 1994; Gass, 1997; Turnbull, 2001; Mayfield, 2005; Peng & Zhang, 2009
  • Exposing the students to the target language helps them develop their language skills
  • Amount of target language use was not more than 60% --not enough!
  • Why?
what s happening in the classroom
What’s happening in the classroom?
  • Limited use of the target language in the classroom
  • Teachers’ lack of confidence in using the target language in the classroom
  • The use of “Arabic FusHa,” “Formal Spoken Arabic” or “Colloquial”
  • Students feel that the first language is used for “serious” talks and the target language is just for activities
  • Students ask other students in L1 about the meanings of words
  • What else?
fluency or accuracy
Fluency or Accuracy?
  • T: Where are you from?
  • S: I from Chongqing.
  • T: No.
  • S: (confused) Oh, I from China.
  • T: No, I AM from Chongqing.
  • S: I am from Chongqing.
  • T: Good, sit down.

(Peng & Zhang, 2009)

minimize or avoid l1
Minimize or Avoid L1?
  • Avoid L1 completely:
    • Teacher does not speak the student’s L1; or
    • Students have different L1’s
  • Minimize L1
    • Less use of L1
    • L1 = negative; L2 = positive
how l1 can be useful
How L1 can be useful
  • “the L1 may be used positively by teachers and students” (p. 403)
  • Teachers:
    • Convey meaning
    • Explain grammar
    • Organize the class
  • Students:
    • Collaborative learning
    • Individual strategy use

(Vivian Cook, 2001)

why l2
Why L2?
  • Input – Exposing Students to L2
  • Samples
  • Motivation
  • Evidence of learning
  • Develop listening skills
  • Develop speaking skills
  • Later skills (reading and writing) depend on listening and speaking
  • Communication
  • Etc.
daily questions
Daily Questions
  • Initiation, Response, Feedback (IRF)
  • Time; Day; Date
  • Current or Recent Events
  • “How are you?”
  • “How is the weather?”
  • Problems with the above examples!
what we can do on day 1
What we can do on day 1
  • Basic Common Phrases/Sentences from Day 1
    • Yes; No
    • Present/Absent
    • Excuse me
    • Thank you
    • How do I say …?
    • What does … mean?
    • Why?
    • Where? Here/There
    • Can you repeat?
    • I (don’t) know.
some examples
Some Examples
  • REALIA
  • Body Language
  • TA’s Help
  • Taking the register
  • How the weekend was spent
  • Counting students in the class
  • Basic phrases
  • Charts
  • Photos and Images
  • Authentic Materials
conclusion
Conclusion

Don’t avoid L1, but maximize L2.

Khaled Huthaily, Ed.D.

Assistant Professor of Arabic & Educational Linguistics

Modern and Classical Languages and Literatures

Central and Southwest Asia Program

The University of Montana

khaled.huthaily@umontana.edu