PC Support & Repair. Chapter 5 Fundamental Operating Systems. Objectives. After completing this chapter, you will meet these objectives: Explain the purpose of an operating system. Describe and compare operating systems to include purpose, limitations, and compatibilities.
PC Support & Repair Chapter 5 Fundamental Operating Systems
Objectives • After completing this chapter, you will meet these objectives: • Explain the purpose of an operating system. • Describe and compare operating systems to include purpose, limitations, and compatibilities. • Determine the operating system based on customer needs. • Install an operating system. • Navigate a Graphical User Interface (GUI). • Identify and apply common preventive maintenance techniques for operating systems. • Troubleshoot operating systems.
Purpose of OS: Control Hardware Access • Interaction between hardware & application • Device driver handles this • Program from hardware manufacturer • PnP auto detects hardware & installs driver • OS then configures the device • Updates the registry
Purpose of OS: File & Folder Management • Files, subfolders, folders (or directories)
Purpose of OS: User Interface • How you interact with OS/software • GUI (graphical user interface) • CLI (command line interface)
Purpose of OS: Application Management • Click an icon, OS locates program, loads into RAM • OS makes sure the application has system resources • An Application Programming Interface (API) is a set of guidelines used by programmers to ensure that the application they are developing is compatible with an OS. • Open Graphics Library (OpenGL) – Cross-platform standard specification for multimedia graphics • DirectX – Collection of APIs related to multimedia tasks for Microsoft Windows
Review • You are creating a new web design software. What guidelines do you need to follow to ensure it will work on an OS? • API • DOS has what kind of interface? • CLI • Windows has what kind of interface? • GUI • What are the 4 basic functions of an OS? • Hardware access, manage files/folders, user interface, manage applications
OS Terms & Concepts • Almost all modern OS’s have all of these capabilities
OS Memory Types • Conventional Memory 0KB - 640KB • For drivers • Upper Memory 640KB – 1MB • For BIOS • Extended Memory 1MB – max • For OS & application software
OS Modes of Operation • OS has different modes to handle each type of application • Real Mode (OLD) • Used by DOS & Windows 3.x • OS can run only 1 program at a time • Can only address 1MB of RAM • Still available
OS Modes of Operation • Protected Mode (OLD) • Each program has a space in memory that can’t be used by other programs • Can manage multi-tasking • Can access all memory & virtual memory • VM= using some HD space for RAM • Up to 32-bit access to RAM, devices, etc.
OS Modes of Operation • Virtual Real Mode (OLD) • Allows OLD real mode applications to run within protected mode • Allows XP to run a DOS only application • If there’s an error, it will only affect the virtual
OS Modes of Operation • Compatibility Mode • In Vista/7 • Allows program to run as if it was on an earlier OS • An XP only program can run in Vista
OS Terms & Concepts • 32-bit & 64-bit OS • 32-bit (x86) OS • Can only access up to 4GB RAM • 64-bit (x64) OS • Can access more than 128GB RAM • Data path is bigger, faster • Need 64-bit program to take advantage of it
Review • Which bit OS can only access up to 4GB of RAM? • 32-bit • What mode will allow a program designed for XP, run in Windows 7? • Compatibility Mode • Which memory is available for the OS & software? • Extended Memory, above 1MB • How does virtual memory work? • Uses part of the HD for RAM • Which mode in XP allows you to run a DOS program and if there’s a n error in it, it won’t affect XP? • Virtual real mode
Versions of Windows OS • Windows XP Pro– Used to connect to Windows Server or network • Windows XP Home– Used on home computers • Windows XP Media Center – Used on entertainment computers • Windows XP Tablet PC Edition – Used for tablet PCs • Windows XP 64-bit Edition – Used for computers with 64-bit processors • Windows 2000 Pro – Older; was replaced by Windows XP Pro • Windows Vista Home Basic – Used on home computers • Windows Vista Home Premium – Used on home computers to expand personal productivity and digital entertainment beyond the basics • Windows Vista Business – Used on small business computers for enhanced security and enhanced mobility technology • Windows Vista Ultimate – Used on computers to combine all the needs of both home and business users
Pick the Right OS • What applications is the customer using? • Will the OS be compatible? • Compatible with the network OS? • If you are sharing files, try and get same OS as other computers • Make sure all is compatible • Consider costs, too
Check Minimum Requirements • RAM • Hard disk drive • CPU • Video adapter card • May need to upgrade some • Make sure you have more than minimum
Check Hardware Compatibility • Hardware Compatibility List (HCL) • Verifies your hardware is compatible with the OS • Vista/7- Compatibility Center or Logo’d Products • XP- HCL • Lab 5.3.2
Review • Before you install a new OS, you should check if your hardware will work with it. What should you reference? • HCL, Compatibility Center • Windows & Mac are versions of what types of OS that are designed for a single user? • Desktop OS • Name some considerations when deciding on a new OS.
Hard Drive Terms • Primary partition • Partition where the OS is • There can be up to four partitions per hard drive • Active partition • Partition being USED by the OS. Only one can be active at a time • Extended partition • The remaining free space on a drive • Can be subdivided into smaller sections called logical drives, using letters • Formatting • This process prepares a file system in a partition for files to be stored • Drive mapping • Drive mapping is a letter assigned to a physical or logical drive
Hard Drive Terms 1st Hard Drive; Bootable; All of the HD is one letter; PRIMARY PARTITION C: 1st Hard Drive; C: is PRIMARY bootable; D: is an EXTDENDED LOGICAL PARTITION C: D: 1st Hard Drive; C: is PRIMARY bootable; D: & E: are EXTDENDED LOGICAL PARTITIONS C: D: E:
Parts of the Hard Drive • Sector • Small section • Cluster • One or more sectors • Track • One complete circle of data on one side of a hard drive platter • A track is broken into groups of sectors
Review • What is a complete circle of data on a HD? • Track • How many partitions can there be per HD? • 4 • How many active partitions can there be at a time? • 1 • What partition contains the OS? • Primary • You partitioned the HD with an OS C:, and D: for data only. What kind of partition is D:? • Extended partition
Install Methods • Distribution DVD or CD • Install from network • NIC must be configured to boot to network location • Image • Recovery CD or partition
Clean Install of the OS from CD/DVD • BIOS must boot to CD/DVD • The install formats & partitions the drive • Partition- logical section • Prepares to accept the file system • Directory structure to organize files of OS, applications, config, and dat • File Systems • FAT32 (up to XP) • Can only handles up to 2TB • NTFS (Vista & 7) • Can handle up to 16 Exabytes
File Systems • NTFS • Use most of the time • Has data security (encryption & compression) • FAT32 • Generally can be used in XP/2000 • If partition is under 32GB • FAT16 • Used if under 2GB
Install the OS- XP • Setup XP –Setup and install XP • Repair XP – To repair an installation, press R to open the Recovery Console. • Troubleshooting tool that can be used to create and format partitions &repair the boot sector or Master Boot Record. • Quit – To quit Setup without installing Windows XP, press F3.
Install the OS- XP • 1st looks for existing install • If found, you can repair it • It replaces OS files with original from CD • All applications & data should remain • ALWAYS BACKUP ANYWAY!
Lab • Install XP • Create Accounts • Check for Updates
Install Vista w/ DVD • Install from within existing OS • DVD should auto-run • If not, select DVD and click setup.exe • If no OS on HD, boot to DVD • What needs to be done first with this option?
Install Vista • Upgrade – Keep your files, settings, and programs and upgrade Windows. Also use this option to repair an installation. • Doesn’t show if no OS is found • Custom (advanced) – Install a clean copy of Windows, select where you want to install it, or make changes to disks and partitions. • Quit – To quit Setup, click the x in the Close box.
Install Vista- Create an Account • 1st account is an administrator • Default name is administrator • Change name • Recommended to use this account to manage PC • Not for daily use • Then create user accounts • Has fewer permissions than admin
Complete the Install • When done, it reboots & you log in • Register with key • Allows download of important updates, patches & service packs • Install can continue w/out key • XP- Start, All Programs, Accessories, System Tools • Vista- Start, Programs • Verify all hardware works in Device Manager
Lab • Install Windows Vista • Create Accounts • Check for Updates
Review • How many primary partitions can be on a HD? • 4 • You are installing a clean copy of Vista. What option do you select when the DVD starts? • Custom (Advanced) • What 3 things can be done when Custom is chosen? • Clean install • Partition change • Select where to install Vista
Review • Can you complete an install w/out the key? • Yes, delayed up to 30 days • During Vista setup, you are asked to create a user name & password. What kind of account is created during this step? • Administrator account • What’s the difference between an Admin & User account? • Admin can change security settings, install software, and make changes to all accounts
Review • You just finished installing an OS. What can you check to make sure all of your hardware is functioning? • Device Manager • Before you begin installing XP, what should you check to make sure the hardware has been tested for XP & will work? • HCL • You are in Vista. Cool Edit will only work in XP, Me, or 2000. What mode will let it run? • Compatibility Mode
Custom Installs- Cloning/Imaging • Creates an image of a hard drive in a computer • Create a master installation on one computer. Includes the OS, applications, and configuration settings that will be used by the other computers in the organization. • Run Sysprep (for unique system ID after cloning) • Create an image using a cloning program (Ghost). • Copy the disk image onto a server. • When the destination computer is booted, a shortened version of the Windows setup program runs. The setup creates a new system security identifier (SID), installs drivers for hardware, creates user accounts, and configures network settings to finish the OS install.
Other Custom Installs • Over a network • Recovery Disc • Automated System recovery (ASR) • Must be created in Backup • Factory Recovery Partition • Can restore PC to factory specs
Review • What kind of install uses a master computer all set up and then you “copy” it to all of your other computers? • Cloning or imaging • In order to install an OS over the network, what must be configured? • NIC (also works with modems & fire wire)
Boot Sequence • Power On Self Test (POST) • Turn on the computer (cold boot) • The computer performs the POST • Any errors will be beep-codes • BIOS locates & reads config settings in CMOS • Finds what device to boot to • Tells where the OS is • Normal is floppy, cd, hd • BIOS locates MBR • Finds the OS boot loader (NTLDR)