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e- commerce. Introduction to e- commerce. Commerce refers to all the activities the purchase and sales of goods or services. -Marketing, sales, payment, fulfillment, customer service.

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e commerce
e- commerce


introduction to e commerce
Introduction to e- commerce
  • Commerce refers to all the activities the purchase and sales of goods or services. -Marketing, sales, payment, fulfillment, customer service.
  • e -commerce is doing commerce with the use of computers, networks and commerce-enabled software (more than just online shopping)


e commerce1
e commerce…….
  • e commerce is an emerging concept that describes the buying and selling of products , services and information via computer networks, including the internet.
  • e-commerce is faster, cheaper, more convenient and can reach more potential customers.


examples of e commerce
Examples of e -commerce
  • EBay –An online based auction room
  • Tesco –Also does internet shopping
  • iTunes –Buy music online.
  • Microsoft –Downloads, sales and technical advice online
  • McDonalds –Only advertises online. 


brief history
Brief History…
  • 1970s: Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT)

--Used by the banking industry to exchange account information over secured networks

  • Late 1970s and early 1980s: Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) for e-commerce within companies

--Used by businesses to transmit data from one business to another

  • 1990s: the World Wide Web on the Internet provides easy-to-use technology for information publishing and dissemination

--Cheaper to do business (economies of scale)

--Enable diverse business activities (economies of scope)


e commerce technologies
e commerce Technologies
  • Internet
  • Mobile technologies
  • Web architecture
  • Component programming
  • Data exchange
  • Multimedia
  • Search engines
  • Data mining
  • Intelligent agents
  • Access security
  • Cryptographic security
  • Watermarking
  • Payment systems


types of e commerce
Types of e-commerce
  • Business to Consumer (B2C)
  • Business to Business (B2B)
  • Consumer to Consumer (C2C)
  • Peer to Peer (P2P)
  • m-Commerce


what is b2c
What is B2C?
  • B2C (or Extranets) is just web-enabled relationships between existing partners; they tend to be run by a single company seeking to lower the cost of doing business with its current suppliers or individual customers.
  • Examples?
    • Amazon.com
    • Egghead.com


figure a b2c e business model


Figure :A B2C e -business Model


User Profiles


Business rules






b2c applications
B2C Applications
  • Electronic storefront
  • Electronic malls
  • Advertising online
  • Service online
    • selling books, toys, computers
    • e-banking ( cyber banking )
    • online stock trading
    • online job market, travel, real estate


what is b2b
What is B2B?
  • B2B is business-to- business commerce conducted over the Internet (called B2B e-commerce space, or e-marketplaces)


a b2b model
A B2B Model

Invoices, Payment , Clearing


Financial institutions,

e credit.com





Celarix, NTE

Transportation, Warehousing


b2b applications
B2B Applications
  • Advertising
  • Auctioning
  • Procurement
  • Channel management
  • E-commerce


what is m commerce
What is m commerce?
  • It is about the explosion of applications and services that are becoming accessible from Internet-enabled mobile devices.
  • It refers to the use of mobile devices for conducting the transactions.


e commerce key components
e commerce – Key Components
  • Placement
  • Merchandise and audience size
  • Presentation
  • Payment
  • Security
  • Fulfillment


impacts of e commerce
Impacts of e commerce
  • It is creating a new market place and opportunities for the reorganization of economic processes, in a more efficient way.
  • It is offering businesses and consumers an innovative and powerful information system and another form of communication.
  • A dramatic impact on the traditional ways of doing business. It has brought producers and consumers closer together and eradicated many of the costs previously encountered.
  • It is evident that the supply industry will benefit from e-commerce which includes those producing computers, networking equipment and the software necessary


e commerce advantages
e commerce - Advantages
  • Advantages to Organizations

Due to the global reach of the Internet, businesses organizations are able to send messages worldwide, exploring new markets and opportunities.

  • Advantages to Consumers

E-commerce provides customers with a platform to search product information through global markets with a wider range of choices, which makes comparison and evaluation easier and more efficient.

  • Advantages to Society

By telecommuting, individuals can nowadays work and do their purchasing at home rather than by traveling around. This will result in less traffic and air pollution.


e commerce disadvantages
e commerce Disadvantages
  • Time for delivery of physical products 
  • Physical product, supplier & delivery uncertainty 
  • Perishable goods .
  • Limited and selected sensory information. 
  • Returning good
  • Privacy, security, payment, identity, contracts
  • Defined services & the unexpected 
  • Personal service .
  • Size and number of transactions. 


applications of e commerce
Applications of e commerce

Some common applications related to electronic commerce are the following

  • Email
  • Enterprise content management
  • Instant messaging
  • Newsgroups
  • Online shopping and order tracking
  • Online banking
  • Online office suites
  • Domestic and international payment systems
  • Shopping cart software
  • Teleconferencing
  • Electronic tickets
  • Video on demand
  • Remote banking
  • Procurement and purchasing
  • Online marketing and advertisement
  • Home shopping
  • Auctions


future of e commerce
Future of e commerce
  • E-commerce introduces incredible benefits, such as the diffusion of information, the development of new technologies, the promotion and sales of products and services, and the collaboration between those in a supply chain.
  • More recently attention has been focused on standards for secure communication, encryption and authentication of both sender and receiver of information on the Internet


e governance
e governance



MBA(Gen)- 1st SEM



e governance an introduction
e governance – An Introduction
  • E-governance is more than just a government website on the Internet.
  • In e governance, all governance processes are electronically enabled – mostly in phases.
  • E.g. government records, taxes, getting feedback from community, information dissemination, data/information gathering, elections, administration, etc.


objectives of e governance
Objectives of e governance
  • To support and simplify governance for all parties; government, citizens and businesses
  • To provide citizen access to information and knowledge about the political process, about services and about choices available
  • Stimulate good governance
  • To fulfill the public’s needs and expectations satisfactory on the front-office side, by simplifying the interaction with various online services


e governance models
e governance- Models
  • G2C
  • G2B
  • G2G


e governance examples
e governance - Examples
  • Uganda - Parliament portal -


  • South Africa - Government online services http://www.gov.za/


implementing e governance
Implementing e governance
  • A vision is a high-level goal, or ambition level, of government regarding the democracy, government and business aspects of e-governance.
  • A strategy consists of plans that translate the vision into SMART (simple, measurable, accountable, realistic and time-related) projects.
  • A good approach towards implementation of e-governance is to combine short-term steps (projects) and long-term goals (vision). Projects will have a more structural value for development when embedded in a vision and supported by a strategy.