the fundamentals of business organizations is canada n.
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The Fundamentals of Business Organizations is Canada. How are businesses different?. 2.4.1 Compare and contrast the following forms of business organizations in the Canadian market: sole proprietorships, partnerships, and corporations. (a) . The 3 types of business: Sole proprietorships

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2.4.1 Compare and contrast the following forms of business organizations in the Canadian market: sole proprietorships, partnerships, and corporations. (a)

  • The 3 types of business:
  • Sole proprietorships
  • Partnerships
  • Corporations
sole proprietorships
Sole proprietorships
  • With this type of business organization, you would be fully responsible for all debts and obligations related to your business and all profits would be yours alone to keep.
  • Easy and inexpensive to form a sole proprietorship (you will only need to register your business name provincially)
  • Relatively low cost to start your business
  • Lowest amount of regulatory burden
  • Direct control of decision making
advantages continued
Advantages continued:
  • Minimal working capital required to start-up
  • Tax advantages if your business is not doing well, for example, deducting your losses from your personal income, lower tax bracket when profits are low, and so on
  • All profits will go to you directly
  • Unlimited liability
  • Income would be taxable at your personal rate and, if your business is profitable, this may put you in a higher tax bracket
  • Lack of continuity for your business, if you need to be absent
  • Difficulty raising capital on your own
  • A partnership would be a good business structure if you want to carry on a business with a partner and you do not wish to incorporate your business. With a partnership, you would combine your financial resources with your partner into the business.
  • Easy to start-up a partnership
  • Start-up costs would be shared equally with you and your partner
  • Equal share in the management, profits and assets
  • Tax advantage, if income from the partnership is low or loses money (you and your partner include your share of the partnership in your individual tax return)
  • Similar to sole proprietorship, as there is no legal difference between you and your business
  • Unlimited liability (if you have business debts, personal assets would be used to pay off the debt)
  • Hard to find a suitable partner
  • Possible development of conflict between you and your partner
disadvantages continued
Disadvantages continued:
  • You are held financially responsible for business decisions made by your partner (for example, contracts that are broken)


This can be done at the federal or provincial level. When you incorporate your business, it is considered to be a legal entity that is separate from the owners and shareholders.

  • Limited liability
  • Ownership is transferable
  • Continuous existence
  • Separate legal entity
  • Easier to raise capital
  • Possible tax advantage as taxes may be lower for an incorporated business
  • A corporation is closely regulated
  • More expensive to incorporate than a partnership or sole proprietorship
  • Extensive corporate records required, including shareholder and director meetings, and documentation filed annually with the government
  • Possible conflict between shareholders and directors
good news we re not even close to finished you get to learn even more but i do have this
Good news! We’re not even close to finished. You get to learn even more! But, I do have this.

2.4.2 Explain the advantages and disadvantages of three basic ways that firms finance operations (retained earnings, loans, and personal savings). (k)

retained earnings
Retained earnings
  • retained earnings refers to the portion of net income which is retained by the corporation rather than distributed to its owners as dividends (wikipedia).
  • In other words, when a company makes money it uses some or all of this to invest back into itself.
  • Particularly important in corporations.
  • The proprietors (business owners) can get a loan from a lending institution like a bank or investment corporation.
  • If the business is a corporation it can itself secure a loan of capital.
personal savings
Personal savings
  • Finally, you could use your own money saved.
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I promise we’re almost done.

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Why do businesses need capital? Could it be for purchasing new land for expansion of the current business? Adding on to existing buildings or modifying them? Buying new machinery or better technology? To hire more employees or particular experts to assist in a company’s growth? To cover payroll or purchases made during a high season or expansion?

  • Yes.
  • One method of increasing capital is to secure a loan from a bank or lending institution.
  • The bank provides you with money for a certain period of time. You must pay interest over that period of time and then pay back the principal (that’s the fancy word for the actual amount of money you borrowed) by the end of the agreed upon time period.
  • Another option is for the business to issue bonds.
  • A bond is an agreement where you, or other investors agree to give the business money and in return the business must pay back the principal with interest by a certain period of time.
  • I think of this as a loan from you and me rather than a bank.
  • A stock is a slice of a company.
  • 2, 5, 10, 20, dozens, hundreds, thousands even millions of people might own a little piece of the company.
  • If you were an owner of a company called “Mr.Welcher’s Awesome Economics 12 Genius Company” then every time that company made any profits it would be divided up equally between everyone in the class, I mean company, I mean..
stocks continued
Stocks continued…
  • Because the profits of a company are DIVIDED up between stock holders that ,money is called a DIVIDEND.
  • The big difference between stocks and bonds is that stocks aren’t a guarantee that you will make any money. A bond will.