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Chapter 8. Motivation and Empowerment. Motivation. The forces either internal or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action. The process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior Who is responsible for this?

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chapter 8

Chapter 8

Motivation and Empowerment


The forces either internal or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action

  • The process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior
  • Who is responsible for this?
  • Motivation is an attribution
  • What is the role of money as a motivator ?

Two football coaches have a lot to teach screaming managers:

  • How does this article challenge your assumptions about motivation?
  • If screaming gets results, is screaming OK? Why or why not?
ex 8 1 a simple model of motivation
Ex. 8.1 A Simple Model of Motivation

Behavior Results in actions to fulfill needs

Rewards Satisfy needs: intrinsic or extrinsic rewards

Need Creates desire to fulfill needs (money, friendship, recognition, achievement)

Feedback Reward informs person whether behavior was appropriate and should be used again

Need: state or condition within an individual that generates movement

toward some outcome or reward.

types of rewards
Types of Rewards

Intrinsic Rewards

  • Internal satisfactions a person receives in the process of performing a particular action

Extrinsic Rewards

  • Rewards given by another person, typically a supervisor, such as pay increases and promotions

Systemwide Rewards

  • Rewards that apply the same to all people within an organization or within a specific category or department
ex 8 2 examples of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards
Ex. 8.2 Examples of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards




Large merit increase

Feeling of self-fulfillment

Pride in being part of a “winning” organization

Insurance benefits


Individual rewards: differ among individuals within the same organization

or department

ex 8 3 needs of people and motivation methods
Ex. 8.3 Needs of People and Motivation Methods

Needs of people

Conventional management


Lower needs

Higher needs

Carrot and stick (Extrinsic)

Empowerment (Intrinsic)

Growth and fulfillment

Control people

Best effort

Adequate effort

ex 8 4 maslow s hierarchy of needs
Ex. 8.4 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Need Hierarchy

Fulfillment on the Job

Opportunities for advancement, autonomy, growth, creativity

Self-actualization Needs

Recognition, approval, high status, increased responsibilities

Esteem Needs

Belongingness Needs

Work groups, clients, coworkers, supervisors

Safety Needs

Safe work, fringe benefits, job security

Physiological Needs

Food, shelter, base salary

Deficiency vs. growth needs


Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

Hygiene Factor - work condition related to dissatisfaction caused by discomfort or pain

  • maintenance factor
  • contributes to employee’s feeling not dissatisfied
  • contributes to absence of complaints

Motivators - work conditions related to the satisfaction of the need for psychological growth

  • job enrichment
  • leads to superior performance & effort
ex 8 5 herzberg s two factor theory
Ex. 8.5 Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

Highly Satisfied





Work itself

Personal growth

Motivators influence level of satisfaction

Area of Satisfaction

Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied

Hygiene Factors

Work conditions


Co. policies


Hygiene factors influence level of dissatisfaction

Area of Dissatisfaction

Interpersonal. relationships

Highly Dissatisfied


Motivation-Hygiene Combinations

(Motivation = M, Hygiene = H)

reinforcement theory
Reinforcement Theory
  • Looks at the relationship between behavior and its consequences by changing or modifying followers’ on-the-job behavior through the appropriate use of immediate rewards or punishments

Behavior is a function of its consequences

behavior modification
Behavior modification
  • Law of effect: positively reinforced behaviors tends to be repeated and behavior that is not reinforced tends to not be repeated.
  • Positive consequences: results of a behavior that a person finds attractive or pleasurable
  • Negative consequences: results of a behavior that a person finds unattractive or aversive
Positive reinforcement: the administration of a pleasant and rewarding consequence following a behavior
  • Negative reinforcement: the withdrawal of an unpleasant consequence once a behavior is improved. Avoidance learning.
  • Punishment: the imposition of unpleasant outcomes on an employee following undesirable behavior
  • Extinction: the attempt to weaken a behavior by attaching no consequences to it.

Examples of Negative Reinforcement

  • Focused on desirable behaviors that occur more frequently:
    • If a clerical worker feels that being ahead is a favorable condition, the worker will be motivated to work hard in order to avoid the unpleasant state of being behind.
    • An instructor deducts 10 points from a student’s grade for each observed absence but there is no effect on a student’s grade for attendance.
    • Example of an alarm in a child’s room.

Examples of Punishment

  • Focused on undesirable behaviors that should occur very infrequently:
    • If you exhibit unprofessionalbehavior in this class, you will lose a letter grades
    • If you are caught cheating on an exam, you could fail the course
    • If you steal something at work, you will be terminated.
acquired needs theory
Acquired Needs Theory
  • McClelland’s theory that proposes that certain types of needs are acquired during an individual’s lifetime
  • Three needs most frequently studied:
    • Need for achievement
    • Need for affiliation
    • Need for power

McClelland’s Need Theory:Need for Achievement

Need for Achievement -a manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns individuals’ issues of excellence, competition, challenging goals, persistence, and overcoming difficulties

  • Set moderate goals
  • Seek feedback
  • Stay focused

McClelland’s Need Theory:Need for Power

Need for Power -a manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns an individual’s need to make an impact on others, influence others, change people or events, and make a difference in life

  • Personal or socialized

McClelland’s Need Theory:Need for Affiliation

Need for Affiliation -a manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns an individual’s need to establish and maintain warm, close, intimate relationships with other people

What combination of needs are present in the best managers?


Expectancy Theory of Motivation: Key Constructs

Valence - value or importance placed on a particular reward

Expectancy - belief that effort leads to performance

Instrumentality - belief that performance is related to rewards

ex 8 6 key elements of expectancy theory
Ex. 8.6 Key Elements of Expectancy Theory

Will putting effort into the task lead to the desired performance?

E > P expectancy

Effort Performance

Will high performance lead to the desired outcomes?

P > O expectancy

Performance Outcomes

Valence – value of outcomes

(pay, recognition, other rewards)

Are the available outcomes highly valued?



Theory of Inequity

Inequity – the situation in which a person perceives he or she is receiving less than he or she is giving, or is giving less than he or she is receiving

People are motivated when they see themselves

in a position they believe is unfair. They will be motivated to either change their behavior or change their perceptions in order to restore equity

carrot and stick controversy
Carrot-and-stick controversy
  • Extrinsic rewards diminish intrinsic rewards
  • Extrinsic rewards are temporary
  • Extrinsic rewards assume people are driven by lower order needs
  • Organizations are too complex for carrot-and-stick approaches
  • Carrot-and-stick approaches destroy people’s motivation to work as a group
on the folly of rewarding a while hoping for b
Mangers hope for:

Teamwork and collaboration

Innovative thinking and risk taking

Development of people skills

Employee involvement and empowerment

High achievement

Commitment to quality

Long-term growth

But they reward:

The best individual performers

Proven methods and not making mistakes

Technical achievements and accomplishments

Tight control over operations and resources

Another year’s routine effort

Shipping time, even with defects

Quarterly earnings

On the folly of rewarding A while hoping for B

See the three major obstacles to fixing reward systems on p. 241

  • Power sharing: the delegation of power or authority to subordinates in the organization. What’s wrong with this concept?
  • Empowerment: being enabled to make independent decisions and take effective action
elements of empowerment
Elements of empowerment
  • Information about company performance
  • Knowledge and skills to contribute to company goals
  • Power to make substantive decisions
  • Understanding the meaning and impact of your job
  • Rewards based on company performance
other approaches
Other approaches
  • Employee ownership
  • Gainsharing
  • Pay for knowledge
  • Pay for performance
  • Job enrichment
  • Goal setting?
    • Problems with?

Core job





Personal and

work outcomes

Skill variety

Task identity

Task significance

Experienced work’s




for work’s outcomes

Knowledge of work

activities’ results

High internal

work motivation


work performance

High satisfaction

with the work

Low absenteeism

and turnover



Employee growth,need, strength

Job Characteristics Model

engagement pp 246 249 bookshelf first break all the rules
Engagement: pp 246-249Bookshelf: First break all the rules
  • The strength of a workplace depends upon engaged employees
  • Leaders
    • Recognize that you have no control
    • Build on the talents of employees
    • Focus people on performance

Engagement is a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. Rather than a momentary and specific state, engagement refers to a more persistent and pervasive affective-cognitive state that is not focused on any particular object, event, individual, or behavior. Vigoris characterized by high levels of energy and mental resilience while working, the willingness to invest effort in one’s work, and persistence even in the face of difficulties. Dedicationrefers to being strongly involved in one's work and experiencing a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. Absorption is characterized by being fully concentrated and happily engrossed in one’s work, whereby time passes quickly and one has difficulties with detaching oneself from work


Gallup Q-12 Engagement – cause or effect?

  • I know what is expected of me at work.
  • I have the materials and equipment I need to do my work right.
  • At work, I have the opportunity to do what I do best everyday.
  • In the last seven days, I have received recognition or praise for doing good work.
  • My supervisor, or someone at work, seems to care about me as a person.
  • There is someone at work who encourages my development.
  • At work, my opinions seem to count.
  • The mission or purpose of my company makes me feel my job is important
  • My associates or fellow employees are committed to doing quality work.
  • I have a best friend at work.
  • In the last six months, someone at work has talked to me about my progress.
  • This last year, I have had opportunities at work to learn and grow.

#13: How satisfied are you with ________ as a place to work?



When I am working, I feel mentally strong

I can continue for a very long time when I am working

When I work at my current job, I feel like I am bursting with energy

At my job, I feel strong and vigorous

When I get up in the morning, I feel like going to work


I find my work to be full of meaning and purpose

My work inspires me

I am enthusiastic about my job

I am proud of the work that I do

I find my work challenging


Time flies when I am working

When I am working, I forget everything else around me

I feel very happy when I am working intensively

I can get carried away when I am working

I am immersed in my work



  • Cause (examples: Q12)
    • I have a best friend at work
    • I know what is expected of me at work
    • My opinions seem to count
    • My supervisor seems to care about me
  • Effect (examples)
    • My work inspires me
    • I am immersed in my work
    • When I get up in the morning, I feel like going to work
    • I feel very happy when I am working intensively
evidence based management
Evidence-Based Management
  • What is evidence-based management?
  • What are six substitutes that managers often use for the best evidence?
  • What are the four things leaders can do to create a new-mindset of evidence-based management?
  • What is the nasty side effect for leaders that practice evidence-based management?