The American Revolution: From Elite Protest to Popular Revolt 1763‒1783 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The American Revolution: From Elite Protest to Popular Revolt 1763‒1783

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  1. 5 The American Revolution: From Elite Protest to Popular Revolt 1763‒1783

  2. The American Revolution: From Elite Protest to Popular Revolt, 1763‒1783 Structure of Colonial Society Why did Americans resist parliamentary taxation? Eroding the Bonds of Empire What events eroded the bonds of empire during the 1760s? 5.1 5.2

  3. The American Revolution: From Elite Protest to Popular Revolt, 1763‒1783 Steps Toward Independence What events in 1775 and 1776 led to the colonists’ decision to declare independence? Fighting for Independence Why did it take eight years of warfare for the Americans to gain independence? 5.3 5.4

  4. Video Series:Key Topics in U.S. History • The Burdens of an Empire: 1763‒1775 • The Stamp Act • Boston Massacre • The Boston Tea Party Home

  5. Moment of Decision: Commitmentand Sacrifice • Few Americans welcomed idea of colonial war • Would have been safer, cheaper to accede to British demands • Ordinary militiamen fought, risked death • The ordeal gave new meaning to social equality Home

  6. Home

  7. Structure of Colonial Society • Breakdown of Political Trust • No Taxation Without Representation: The American Perspective • Justifying Resistance Home

  8. Structure of Colonial Society • 1760s - optimistic postwar period • Striking ethnic and racial diversity • Young population • Relative prosperity Structure of Colonial Society

  9. Breakdown of Political Trust • 1760 - George III ascended to throne • Aggressive role in government • Upset Whigs by ignoring their role • High turnover among top ministers • Parliamentary Sovereignty • English officials assumed that Parliament must have ultimate authority • Little room for compromise Structure of Colonial Society

  10. Structure of Colonial Society

  11. No Taxation Without Representation • Previous colonial role in British empire vague • Assumptions about personal liberties, property rights, representative institutions • 1763 – clarifying ideas • Colonial assemblies – similar to Parliament • Virtual representation • Representation chosen by the people Structure of Colonial Society

  12. Justifying Resistance • Political ideology • Not fully understood by Loyalists and British rulers • John Locke • Commonwealthmen – English writers • Newspapers Structure of Colonial Society

  13. Discussion Question • Why did Americans resist parliamentary taxation? Structure of Colonial Society

  14. Eroding the Bonds of Empire • Paying Off the National Debt • The Protest Spreads • Fueling the Crisis • Surge of Force • The Final Provocation: The Boston Tea Party Home

  15. Eroding the Bonds of Empire • Following Seven Years’ War • Large, expensive debt • Army remained in colonies • Pontiac’s Rebellion • Frontier racism • Colonists determined to settle trans-Appalachian West • Proclamation of 1763 banned settlement in trans-Appalachian West Eroding the Bonds of Empire

  16. Paying Off the National Debt • George Grenville attempted to reduce England’s war debt • Finance minister • Colonists would have to contribute to maintenance of army • Revenue Act of 1764 (Sugar Act) • Colonists claimed unconstitutional • Merchants and gentry protested; most colonists ignored • Designed to raise revenue Eroding the Bonds of Empire

  17. Eroding the Bonds of Empire

  18. The Protest Spreads • Stamp Act of 1765 • Colonists must purchase stamps • Protests against act • Patrick Henry and the Virginia Resolves • Stamp Act Congress • Sons of Liberty • Boycott of British goods • Stamp Act repealed • Passed Declaratory Act Eroding the Bonds of Empire

  19. Eroding the Bonds of Empire

  20. Fueling the Crisis • Charles Townshend – new finance minister • Townshend Revenue Acts - 1767 • American Board of Customs Commissioners • New York governor to veto all bills until Quartering Act followed • Sons of Liberty reacted • Organized boycotts Eroding the Bonds of Empire

  21. Eroding the Bonds of Empire

  22. Surge of Force • Tension - British troops sent to Boston • 4,000 regular troops • Competed in spare time for jobs • Pamphleteers – troops were conspiracy • March 5, 1770 – Violence erupted • English soldiers fired on civilian crowd • Boston Massacre Eroding the Bonds of Empire

  23. Surge of Force (continued) • New finance minister – Lord North • Repealed Townshend duties • Except duty on tea • Samuel Adams • Believed repeal did not mean liberty • Kept cause alive • Suggested committees of correspondence Eroding the Bonds of Empire

  24. Eroding the Bonds of Empire

  25. The Final Provocation:The Boston Tea Party • 1773 - Parliament passed Tea Act • Lowered price for tea • Tea tax still collected in American ports • Undercut colonial smugglers • Colonists turned back ships before they unloaded • Governor in Boston insistent • Ships sat in harbor Eroding the Bonds of Empire

  26. The Final Provocation:The Boston Tea Party (continued) • Boston Tea Party • Protesters dumped tea into the harbor • Stunned Lord North • Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts) • Closed the port of Boston • Restructured Massachusetts government • British officials to be tried in England • Quartering of troops Eroding the Bonds of Empire

  27. The Final Provocation:The Boston Tea Party (continued) • King George III supported Coercive Acts • Appointed Thomas Gage as new royal governor of Massachusetts • Confirmed colonists’ fears • Denial of constitutional liberties • Moderates shaken by vindictiveness of act • Other colonies sent supplies Eroding the Bonds of Empire

  28. Discussion Question • What events eroded the bonds of empire during the 1760s? Eroding the Bonds of Empire

  29. Steps Toward Independence • Shots Heard Around the World • Beginning “The World Over Again” Home

  30. Steps Toward Independence • September 1774 - First Continental Congress • Met in response to Coercive Acts • Colonial leaders • Differences of opinion • Intercolonial “Association” created • Halted commerce with Britain until Coercive Acts repealed Steps Toward Independence

  31. Shots Heard Around the World • Conflict - April 19, 1775 • Gage sent troops to seize rebel supplies • Paul Revere warned colonists • Skirmish broke out in Lexington • Nothing found in Concord by British • Fighting spread upon return to Boston • All along road between Lexington, Concord, and Boston • Battle of Bunker Hill Steps Toward Independence

  32. Beginning “The World Over Again” • Second Continental Congress • Took control of war • Formed Continental Army • Issued paper money to purchase supplies • Refused to declare independence • British responded • Prohibitory Act • German mercenaries hired • Urged slaves to rebel Steps Toward Independence

  33. Beginning “The World Over Again” (continued) • Thomas Paine • January 1776 - Common Sense • Convinced ordinary colonists to sever ties with Britain • July 2, 1776 - Independence voted by Congress • Declaration of Independence Steps Toward Independence

  34. Table 5.1 Chronicle ofColonial-British Tension Steps Toward Independence

  35. Steps Toward Independence

  36. Steps Toward Independence

  37. Discussion Question • What events in 1775 and 1776 led to the colonists’ decision to declare independence? Steps Toward Independence

  38. Fighting for Independence • Building a Professional Army • “Times That Try Men’s Souls” • Victory in a Year of Defeat • The French Alliance • The Final Campaign • The Loyalist Dilemma Home

  39. Fighting for Independence • British confident of victory • Larger population, more resources • Naval supremacy • Britain’s military situation • Long supply lines • America a vast area to be conquered • Had to crush the spirit of independence • British underestimated Americans’ commitment Fighting for Independence

  40. Building a Professional Army • Washington built fighting force • Rejected guerilla warfare strategy • Survival depended on soliciting foreign aid • Failed to understand political importance of militia • African Americans in the Revolution • Supported side that promised freedom • Two all-black units in Continental Army Fighting for Independence

  41. How Did the American Revolution Unfold? • Where did the Americans have military successes? • Which regions were Loyalist and Patriot strongholds? • What position did the major cities play in the conflict? Fighting for Independence

  42. Fighting for Independence

  43. “Times That Try Men’s Souls” • General Howe replaced Gage for British • Simple police action not enough • 50,000 British troops sent to colonies • Fighting shifts to New York • Goal - cut New England off • Washington forced to retreat • Howe issued pardon for all who swore loyalty to Britain Fighting for Independence

  44. “Times That Try Men’s Souls” (continued) • Washington crossed Delaware River • American prospects appeared bleak • Washington had some successes • Captured 900 Hessians in Trenton • Washington captured Princeton • Victories cheered Patriots • The Patriot cause revived • But many feared the frontier Fighting for Independence

  45. Fighting for Independence

  46. Victory in a Year of Defeat • British strategy • Cut off New England from other colonies • Lure Continental army into decisive battle • Burgoyne defeated at Saratoga • Surrendered to General Horatio Gates • Howe took Philadelphia • Washington’s army wintered at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania • Disease killed Americans Fighting for Independence

  47. The French Alliance • French helped colonists • Revenge for defeat in Seven Years’ War • Sent supplies early in Revolution • Marquis de Lafayette • Effects of Saratoga • Convinced France that colonists were serious enough to become formal allies • British sued for peace to prevent Franco-American alliance Fighting for Independence

  48. Fighting for Independence

  49. The Final Campaign • Southern colonies – Britain’s last chance • Southern strategy turned war into bitter guerrilla conflict • Partisan warfare weakened British army • Cornwallis moved British into Virginia • Began to fortify Yorktown • Washington joined with French • Cornwallis surrendered • Treaty of Paris 1783 • End of Revolution Fighting for Independence

  50. Fighting for Independence