STI policies in OECD and transition countries Giorgio SirilliResearch Associate Moscow April 28, 2016
Outline of the presentation The role of S&T in society S&T policy The challenges to S&T The impact of the crisis Evaluation of R&D The impact on higher education The role of the state Challenges for Russia
The increase of wealth 0.21% doublingincomeevery331years 1.1% doublingincomeevery64years 2.08% doublingincomeevery34years
Employment in China Services Industry Agriculture
Science policy Science policy is an area of public policy which is concerned with the policies that affect the conduct of the science and research enterprise, including the funding of science, often in pursuance of other national policy goals such as technological innovation to promote commercial product development, weapons development, health care and environmental monitoring. (Wikipedia)
A brief history of science and technology policy Patronage ofrulers dei (es. in the Rennaissance) Industrial revolution Between the First and the Second World Wars rockets, nuclearenergy, operationsresearch, DDT After the Second World War science and technology policy ofgovernments
Science and technology policy • Vannevar Bush • “Science the Endless Frontier” 1945
“Science the Endless Frontier” Issues to be addressed through science: - difence - health Solution: science policy
“Science the Endless Frontier” The Government is peculiarly fitted to perform certain functions, such as the coordination and support of broad programs on problems of great national importance. Scientific progress on a broad front results from the free play of free intellects, working on subjects of their own choice, in the manner dictated by their curiosity for exploration of the unknown. Freedom of inquiry must be preserved under any plan for Government support of science.
“Science the Endless Frontier” Publicly and privately supported colleges and universities and the endowed research institutes must furnish both the new scientific knowledge and the trained research workers. These institutions are uniquely qualified by tradition and by their special characteristics to carry on basic research. “Industry is generally inhibited by preconceived goals, by its own clearly defined standards, and by the constant pressure of commercial necessity. Satisfactory progress in basic science seldom occurs under conditions prevailing in the normal industry laboratory.”
Scientific research and profit The pre-eminence of the profit motive in conducting scientific research ultimately means that science is deprived of its epistemological character, according to which its primary goal is discovery of the truth. The risk is that when research takes a utilitarian turn, its speculative dimension, which is the inner dynamic of man’s intellectual journey, will be diminished or stifled. (Letterof pope John Paul II to the Conference “Conflictof Interest and itsSignificance in Science and Medicine”, Warsaw 5-6 April 2002)
The rationale for science policy Strategic-military Prestige (Concorde) Need of large capitals and high risk Support to international competitiveness of industry Basic knowledge with long term benefits Non appropriable knowledge Sectors characterised by small firms (agriculture) Service sector (health)
Socio-economic objectives Exploration and exploitation of the earth Environment Exploration and exploitation of space Transport, telecommunication and other infrastructures Energy Industrial production and technology Health Agriculture Education Culture, recreation, religion and mass media Political and social systems, structures and processes General advancement of knowledge: R&D financed from general university funds (GUF) General advancement of knowledge: R&D financed from other sources than GUF Defence
From science to innovation Averageadoptionlagshavedeclined markedlyover the past 200 years Source: WIPO, World Intellectual Property Report, 2015
The great challenges Maintaining jobs and economic growth in open economies requires greater competitiveness(48 million people unemployed in the OECD) The transition to a low-carbon economy and the preservation of natural resources is a major challenge Ageing will dramatically increase pressure on economic performance, social and health care, and public finances Income inequality has increased during the crisis. ICTs offer opportunities to support inclusive innovation. Education and training policies will be essential to avoid exclusion. => Calling for a “new deal” for innovation Raises the status of innovation in the policy portfolio, while seeking to - leverage private funding for innovation and - increase the impact of public action
Public perceptionofS&T The perceptionof science and technologyby societyEUROBAROMETER
Do you think that the overall influence of science and technology on society is positive or negative? Special Eurobarometer , Responsible Research and Innovation, Science and Technology, November 2013
Science and faith: the split of Europe Special Eurobarometer , Responsible Research and Innovation, Science and Technology, November 2013
Science and faith: the split of Europe Question: We depend too much on science and not enough on faith Answers: Total agree Special Eurobarometer , Responsible Research and Innovation, Science and Technology, November 2013
Encyclical letter. Pope Francis Economic powers continue to justify the current global system where priority tends to be given to speculation and the pursuit of financial gain with its search for immediate interest, which fail to take the context into account, let alone the effects on human dignity and the natural environment. The technocratic paradigm tends to dominate economic and political life. The economy accepts every advance in technology with a view to profit, without concern for its potentially negative impact on human beings. Finance overwhelms the real economy. Our politics are subject to technology and finance.
What does society expect from S&T? Economicgrowth Jobs
Definition of R&D Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative and systematic work undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge - including knowledge of humankind, culture and society - and to devise new applications of available knowledge. Basic research Applied research Experimental development
Budgets are levelling off or receding… Public R&D budgets (GBAORD), as % of GDP, 2013 compared to 2011 Source: OECD estimates based on OECD MSTI database, June 2014.
Diverging Europe National R&D spending targets and gap with current levels of GERD intensity, % of GDP, 2014 Source: OECD estimates based on OECD MSTI database, June 2014.