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Sustainability Radical resource productivity Whole system design Biomimicry Green chemistry

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Sustainability Radical resource productivity Whole system design Biomimicry Green chemistry

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  1. Sustainability Radical resource productivity Whole system design Biomimicry Green chemistry Industrial ecology Renewable energy Green nanotechnology

  2. Sustainability Radical resource productivity Whole system design Biomimicry Green chemistry Industrial ecology Renewable energy Green nanotechnology

  3. Sustainability means surviving to infinity. Conventional economic view Ecological economic view vs Biased to Man-made capital (buildings & equipment) Biased to Natural capital (natural resources & ecosystem services)

  4. Examples of Natural Capital: Natural resources: - water, minerals, biomass and oil Ecosystem services: - Land which provides space to live and work - Water and nutrient cycling - Purification of water and air - Atmospheric and ecological stability - Pollination and biodiversity - Pest and disease control - Topsoil and biological productivity - Waste decomposition and detoxification

  5. Very Weak (Solow-) Sustainability SD is achievable as long as the total of natural capital (KN) plus the man-made capital (KM) remains constant. i.e., KN + KM = constant Conventional Economic View: It is okay to reduce KN stocks as far as they are being substituted by increase in KM stocks. Rationale: Increasing man-made stocks provide high incomes, which lead to increased levels of environmental protectionism. (Substitutability Paradigm)

  6. Very Weak (Solow-) Sustainability Criticism: What about the following substitutions to maintain KM + KN = constant? Boats for Fish Pumps for Aquifers Saw mills for Forests (Substitutability Paradigm)

  7. increasing the area and depth that was fished • capelin – an important prey species for the cod – were caught as bycatch A 500 year old industry collapsed in 1992 and not recovered yet. Source: www…..

  8. Weak (Modified Solow-) Sustainability SD is achievable by maintaining KN + KM = constant only by preserving the non-substitutable proportion and/or components of KN stocks. Rationale: Upper limits on the non-substitutable proportion and/or components of KN stocks are needed to preserve biodiversity and ecosystem resilience to meet the human needs. Problem: Yet there is no scientific consensus overthe set of physical indicators required to monitor and measure biodiversity and ecosystem resilience. Eg: How much CO2 could be emitted?

  9. Strong Sustainability SD is achievable only when KN = constant. (Non-substitutability Paradigm) Rationale: Non-substitutability of some components of KN; Uncertainty about ecosystem functioning and their total service value; Irreversibility of some environmental resource degradation and/or loss; Scale of human impact relative to global carrying capacity (scale effect) Eg: greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion and acid rain

  10. Criticism of Weak & Strong Sustainabilities They both assume a centralized decision-making process and a decision-maker who decides on behalf of “society” among alternative programs and plans. In reality, virtually all economic decisions are decentralized among many much narrower interests, namely individuals, family groups, or firms. Even with the best concerns for the welfare of future generations and the planet, most decision-makers optimize within a much narrower context. Eg: Purchase of a car Source: R. U. Ayres, ‘Viewpoint: weak versus strong sustainability’

  11. Natural Capitalism Industrial Capitalism recognizes the value of money and goods as capital. Natural Capitalism extends recognition to natural capital and human capital. Problems such as pollution and social injustice may then be seen as failures to properly account for capital, rather than as inherent features of Capitalism itself. Eg: Polluting with a car or not being able to afford a car will be seen as a failure of the political system forcing it to seek remedies. Source: P. Hawken, A. Lovins and H. Lovins, 1999 ‘Natural Capitalism: Creating the Next Industrial Revolution.’

  12. Negative direction in Industrial Capitalism Positive direction in Natural Capitalism An innovation? Source: www.cartoonstock.com/directory/t/traffic_jams.asp

  13. Natural Capitalism The "next industrial revolution" depends on four central strategies: - conservation of resources through more effective manufacturing processes - reuse of materials as found in natural systems - change in values from quantity to quality - investing in natural capital, or restoring and sustaining natural resources Source: P. Hawken, A. Lovins and H. Lovins, 1999 ‘Natural Capitalism: Creating the Next Industrial Revolution.’

  14. Sustainability Radical resource productivity Whole system design Biomimicry Green chemistry Industrial ecology Renewable energy Green nanotechnology

  15. Radical Resource Productivity (or Eco-efficiency) means doing more with less for longer. An (engineering) drive to dramatically increase the output per unit input of resources (such as energy, man-made materials & natural resources such as air, water, or minerals).

  16. Radical Resource Productivity (or Eco-efficiency) The Industrial Revolution led to a radical increase in labour productivity and capital productivity at the cost of exploitation of natural resources which are considered abundant. What is needed now is a radical increase in resource productivity because it can slow or reverse resource depletion, reduce pollution caused by the inefficient use of resources, and save money. Source: http://www.sustainabilitydictionary.com

  17. Radical Resource Productivity (or Eco-efficiency) • World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) has identified the following • seven elements of eco-efficiency: • - reduce the material requirements for goods & services • - reduce the energy intensity of goods & services • - enhance material recyclability • - maximize sustainable use of renewable resources • - extend product durability • increase the service intensity of goods & services • - reduce toxic dispersion

  18. Radical Resource Productivity (or Eco-efficiency) Increasing efficiency could result in Rebound Effect Example of Rebound Effect: In Scotland, about a 66% efficiency increase was realized in making of steel per unit amount of coal consumed. It was however followed by a tenfold increase in total consumption of coal.

  19. Radical Resource Productivity (or Eco-efficiency) Increasing efficiency could result in Rebound Effect Example of Rebound Effect: A consumer saved 90% electricity by replacing an inefficient light bulb by a 90% more efficient one. He/she may forget to turn the light off and/or may leave it on for prolonged periods.

  20. Radical Resource Productivity (or Eco-efficiency) Increasing efficiency could result in Rebound Effect Example of Rebound Effect: A family purchased a hybrid car which is 50% more efficient than a standard car. It paid half as much for petrol to go a km. Therefore it may decide to drive the car more.

  21. Radical Resource Productivity (or Eco-efficiency) Purposeful sustainability policies and incentives for sustainability orientated behaviour change are needed to make efficiency savings meaningful. Otherwise efficiency saving can lead to rebound effects that lead to even greater resource consumption due to either making a process much cheaper or removing the financial incentive for behaviour change.

  22. Three Myths of Behavior Change - What You Think You Know That You Don't: Jeni Cross at TEDxCSU https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l5d8GW6GdR0 Myths: Education will change behaviour You need to change attitudes to change behaviour People know what motivates them to take action Social NORMS

  23. On critical elements

  24. New Scientist magazine, 23 May 2007, page 34-41

  25. A direct-drive permanent-magnet generator for a top capacity wind turbine would use 4,400 lb of neodymium-based permanent magnet material. 600 – 1000 kg per MW wind power http://www.dailymail.co.uk/home/moslive/article-1350811/In-China-true-cost-Britains-clean-green-wind-power-experiment-Pollution-disastrous-scale.html

  26. Inside the Baotou Xijun Rare Earth refinery in Baotou, where neodymium, essential in new wind turbine magnets, is processed http://www.dailymail.co.uk/home/moslive/article-1350811/In-China-true-cost-Britains-clean-green-wind-power-experiment-Pollution-disastrous-scale.html

  27. The lake of toxic waste at Baotou, China, which as been dumped by the rare earth processing plants in the background http://www.dailymail.co.uk/home/moslive/article-1350811/In-China-true-cost-Britains-clean-green-wind-power-experiment-Pollution-disastrous-scale.html

  28. Villagers Su Bairen, 69, and Yan Man Jia Hong, 74, stand on the edge of the six-mile-wide toxic lake in Baotou, China that has devastated their farmland and ruined the health of the people in their community http://www.dailymail.co.uk/home/moslive/article-1350811/In-China-true-cost-Britains-clean-green-wind-power-experiment-Pollution-disastrous-scale.html

  29. Sustainability Radical resource productivity Whole system design Biomimicry Green chemistry Industrial ecology Renewable energy Green nanotechnology

  30. Whole System Design optimizes an entire system to capture synergies. What is synergy? Synergy means combined effort being greater than parts Source: http://www.frugalmarketing.com/dtb/10xe.shtml

  31. Synergy in Ecosystem Mutualism: both populations benefit and neither can survive without the other Protocooperation: both populations benefit but the relationship is not obligatory Commensalism: one population benefits and the other is not affected

  32. Antagonism (the opposite to synergy) in Ecosystem • Amensalism - one is inhibited and the other is not affected Competition – one’s fitness is lowered by the presence of the other Parasitism– one is inhibited and for the other its obligatory

  33. Whole System Design Take a look at an age-old example of synergy:

  34. Whole System Design A modern example of synergy: Pumping is the largest use of electric motors, which use more than 50% of world’s electricity use. One heat-transfer loop was designed to use 14 pumps totalling 71 kW by a top Western firm. Dutch engineer Jan Schilham cut the design’s pumping power use by 92% to just 5 kW (using the methods learned from the efficiency expert Eng Lock Lee of Singapore) Source: http://stephenschneider.stanford.edu/Publications/PDF_Papers/ LovinsLovins1997.pdf

  35. Whole System Design How was that possible? The pipes diameter was increased. Since friction reduction is proportional to diameter5, small pumps were enough. Pipes were laid out before the equipment installation. The pipes are therefore short and straight, with far less friction, requiring smaller and cheaper pumps, motors and inverters. The straighter pipes also allowed to add more insulation, saving 70 kW of heat loss with a 2-month payback. Source: http://stephenschneider.stanford.edu/Publications/PDF_Papers/ LovinsLovins1997.pdf

  36. (2) Elevation (Z2 = 10 m) Window (fixed into wall) Elevation (Z1 = 0 m) Q (1) Machine press (movable) A A typical production plant scenario

  37. Conventional Design Solution

  38. Whole System Design Solution Larger diameter pipes Avoid 90 degree bends And much more

  39. Comparing the cost of the two solutions Synergy means combined effort being greater than parts

  40. Whole System Design What about the cost? Optimizing the lifecycle savings in pumping energy plus capital cost of the whole system showed that the extra cost of the slightly bigger pipes was smaller than the cost reduction for the dramatically smaller pumps and drive systems. Whole-system life cycle costing is widely used in principle, but in practice, energy-using components are usually optimized (if at all) over the short term, singly, and in isolation. Source: http://stephenschneider.stanford.edu/Publications/PDF_Papers/ LovinsLovins1997.pdf

  41. Whole System Design Traditional engineering design process focuses on optimizing components for single benefits rather than whole systems for multiple benefits. WSD requires creativity, good communication, and a desire to look at causes of problems rather than adopting familiar solutions, and it requires getting to the root of the problem. Source: http://www.frugalmarketing.com/dtb/10xe.shtml

  42. Whole System Design • An example: Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability (CIRS) building in British Columbia • all heating and cooling from the ground underneath the building • all electricity from the sun • use 100% day-lighting during the day • use no external water supply • depend on natural ventilation and sustainable building materials • treat all waste produced • minimize the use of private automobiles • have hospital operating room levels of air quality • improve the productivity and health of building occupants Sustainable Buildings

  43. CIRS building in British Columbia Virtual tour at http://cirs.ubc.ca/building

  44. Whole System Design Humane (occupants are happy, healthy and productive) Green (siting, water, energy, and material efficiencies reduce the building footprint) Smart (fully adaptive to new conditions while being cost competitive) Sustainable Buildings

  45. Whole System Design Like the engineering profession itself, engineering education is compartmentalized, with minimal consideration of systems, design, sustainability, and economics. The traditional design process focuses on optimizing components for single benefits rather than whole systems for multiple benefits. This, plus schedule-driven repetitis (i.e., copy the previous drawings), perpetuates inferior design. Source: http://www.frugalmarketing.com/dtb/10xe.shtml

  46. Whole System Design Worked Examples on WSD from Natural Edge Project, Australia Example 1:Industrial Pumping Systems Example 2:Passenger Vehicles Example 3:Electronic and Computer Systems Example 4:Temperature Control of Buildings Example 5:Domestic Water Systems Source: http://www.naturaledgeproject.net/Whole_System_Design.aspx