ISON project Igor Molotov Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics RAS, Moscow, Russia email@example.com 2019 BRICS Astronomy Working Group (BAWG) and Workshop Multi-messenger and Multi-wavelength Astronomy September 29 to October 2 2019 - Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
International Scientific Optical Network (ISON) • ISON have been started in 2004 as open international voluntary projectto cover three main scientific areas: • space debris (under coordination of KeldyshInstitute of Applied Mathematics (KIAM), RAS); • asteroids (jointly coordinated with Institute of Astronomy of Kharkiv National University, Ukraine and KIAM RAS); • GRB observations (under coordination of Space Research Institute, RAS) • Many tens telescopes were produced or modernized • Currently 28 observatories with 55 telescopes (apertures from 18 cm to 2.6 m)cooperates with ISON project
Telescope building We ordered or participated into elaboration of few series of telescopes, mounts, domes, pavilions, focusers etc…: • Genon(objectives 12.5 cm, 19.2 cm, 30 cm, Hamilton 22 cm, 25 cm, 40 cm, 50 cm), SanTel(Hamilton 25 cm, 40 cm, 65 cm), ChV (Newton 40 cm, 50 cm, mounts and domes),DISON (Hamilton 20 cm, Newton 25 cm, 40 cm, mounts, pavilions, focusers)
Space Debris is unique research object • Science – space debris has anthropogenic origin, but his population is developing in accordance with the laws of nature and therefore such development is topic of science • Diplomacy – elaboration of measures to minimize space debris origin, elaboration of the rules of motion (behavior) in space, determination of the scope of the permissible reaction in the case of problems caused by space debris and satellites (collisions, re-entering), keeping possibilities to use space for future generations • Space industry - protection and security of the spacecrafts, minimizing the causes of its failure, conjunction analysis, forecast of re-entering • Low Earth Orbits (LEO) are investigated mainly with radar • Geostationary (GEO) and medium Earth orbits (MEO) are investigated mainly with optical telescopes • High Elliptical Orbit (HEO) – both radar (perigee) and optical (apogee) • Radar – military mostly (space surveillance), Optics – civilian mostly
Space debris research with ISON Observations: • global surveying of all GEO orbits; • tracking of bright GEO, HEO and MEO objects; • searching and follow up of faint debris objects Goals: • Maintenance of the space debris database of the RAS, as a central information node to perform space debris research in RAS; • Support of orbit catalogue of space objects to provide the conjunction assessment analysis for Russian satellites; • Develop the space debris population modelat high orbits
Statistical model derived from cat. objects • 306 normal local centers were generated out of 18177 RSO (2017-05). • Naturally describes high density areas (e.g. intact GSO) by means of covariance matrix
Statistics of rapprochements between all active GEO satellites and all catalogued GEO and HEO space objects during 2018
It were discovered many hundreds of objects with high area to mass ratio up to 50 m2/kg which have crazy ballistic evolution under solar radiation pressure (some GEO objects are reentered into the Earth atmosphere) – its are real solar sails 10 years of orbital plane evolution for object 95177
Changes of KIAM database (quantity of objects at high orbits) by date More 8000 space objects at high orbits. Quantity of cataloged objects in HEO orbits increased dramatically, that significantly reduced the quality of the catalog in the whole.
Degree of incompleteness of information about space debris objects - destructions An increase of 1.5 times in 16 months! The explosion stage Atlas 5 Centaur 2018-079B The explosion stage Atlas 5 Centaur 2009-047B The explosion stage Transtage 17 The explosion stage Atlas 5 Centaur 2014-055B Dynamics of changes in 2018-2019, the number of cataloged objects, identified with the source of the occurrence Russia - 2000 catalogued fragments of destruction, the United States - 100 How many potentially dangerous fragments have actually formed?
Full-fledged space debris research can only be carried out in international cooperation • BRICS is a very suitable body for this work • At least 4 BRICS countries are engaged in such work-Russia, China, India and Brazil. There are plans to install telescopes to track space debris at South Africa • All BRICS countries participate in discussion of space debris problem at UN COPUOS level • The first steps of cooperation in this area have already been taken between Russia and China, between Russia and Brazil
ASPIN program of the ISON projectAsteroid Search andPhotometry Initiative ASPIN program is part of ISON project for: • developing asteroid survey technology using small wide-field telescopes that provide full sky coverage during night to detect fast NEAs • regular photometric observation campaign on NEAs for obtaining of data on their physical properties • follow-up Near-Earth asteroids (NEA) with dedicated subsystem of telescopes of 35-cm - 50-cm aperture class • arranging the photometry observations of bright NEAs with subnetwork of very small telescopes (25 cm aperture) • obtaining MPC codes for ISON observatories (12 codes to the date)
ISON photometry observation campaigns • 8 telescopes (2.6 m ZTSh in Nauchniy, 70 cm AS-32 in Abastumani, 1 m Zeiss-1000 in Simeiz, 1 m Zeiss-1000 in Tien-Shan, 80 cm RC-800 in Mayaki, 2 m Zeiss-2000 in Rozhen, 70 cm AZT-8 in Chuguev, 60 cm Zeiss-600 in Maidanak) participate in ISON photometry observations of asteroids each year (campaigns were started in 2008) • Approx. 250 nights of observations and up to 80 asteroids per year (700 light curves for 300 NEAs total to the date)
OBJECTS AND AIMS OF THE PHOTOMETRIC SURVEY • Newly discovered and/or closely approaching the Earth NEAs, especially potentially hazardous asteroids (PHA); • NEAs, whose orbits and bodies characteristics suggest the possibility of the YORP effect detection; • Binary NEAs, with the focus on the BYORP effect determination; • Search for new binary asteroids; • Small NEAs with diameters smaller 300 m, which can have very fast rotation; • NEAs are radar targets
ISON participation in IAWN campaign for 1999KW4 in May of 2019 – 13 telescopes provided observations 2 m Zeiss-2000 in Rozhen (1 night of polarimetry and 1 night of spectrometry), 1 m Zeiss-1000 in Tien-Shan (2 nights of photometry) 80 cm RK-800 in Mayaki(2 nights of photometry) 70 cm AZT-8 in Chuguev (8 nights of photometry) 70 cm AS-32 in Abastumani (5 nights of photometry + astrometry) 60 cm Zeis-600 in Rozhen (1 nights of photometry) 60 cm Zeis-600 in Maydanak (3 nights of photometry) 50 cm RC-500 in Krasnodar (6 nights of astrometry and photometry) 50 cm ChV-500 in Kislosvodsk (1 night of astrometry) 40 cm ChV-400 in Cosala (3 nights of photometry) 40 cm ChV-400 in Uzhgorod (2 nights of astrometry and photometry) 36 cm RC-360 in Kitab (7 nights of astrometry and photometry) 22 cm ORI-22 in Castelgrande (2 nights of astrometry)
ISON asteroid surveys • Two surveys with 40 cm telescopes in New Mexico, USA (1.65x1.65 degree) and Siding Spring, Australia (2x2 degree) (joint project with AIUB team) with centralized scheduling and processing in KIAM allowed adjust technique and software, and stopped in end of 2018 • Such spreading in latitude and longitude, allowed, in the presence of weather, to conduct almost continuous monitoring and quick follow up of the discovered objects • Both telescopes in the USA and Australia cover 900 square degrees per night with a limiting magnitude up to 20.5 m • 1 230 500 astrometry measurements, it is discovered 17 NEAs, 8 comets, 20 Trojans of Jupiter, 4 objects from the family of Hilda, 4 objects of family Centaur, and 1605 main belt asteroids.
Survey with new 40 cm telescope with FOV of 22 sq. deg.in Multa, Republic Altai, begin soon Second similar 40 cm telescope with FOV of 22 sq. deg. is ordered and must be ready in 2020. The place with good astroclimate for its installation is searched. 4 of such telescopes will be able to cover with asteroid survey the entire sky for two or three nights Test first light near Moscow with CCD-chip 36x36 mm FOV is 4x4 degree
Our conception to develop the survey with small telescopes with large FOV • This inexpensive and maximally quick solution to cover all sky with limiting magnitude down to 20.5 m • We started from 40-cm with FOV 1.65x1.65degree, now will be 4x5.5 degree, there is project of 50-cm 1: 1 that on the matrix 61x61 will give a field of 7x7 degrees. Triple covering > 5000 square degrees per night. • One double 50-cm telescope can cover > 10000 square degrees per nigh with asteroid survey.
Part of ISON telescopes participated in observations of GRB optical afterglows • Alerts and requests on observations are automatically distributed by team of Space Research Institute of RAS that then collect CCD images and provide their processing and analysis • Regular workshops are arranged for observers to train in observations technique and preliminary processing of CCD images • Telescopes participated in photometry observations of asteroids also observe and GRBs alerts but in manual mode mostly • New ISON software for telescope control (KDS) provide automatic reaction of small and medium class telescopes on GRB alerts. KDS will be widely distributed among ISON telescopes during 2020.
Cooperation with the UN • Since 2008, the ISON results have been presented annually to the Scientific and technical Subcommittee of the UN Committee on the peaceful uses of outer space in Vienna • On 1 June 2012, during the 55th session of the UN Committee on the peaceful uses of outer space (SOPUOS), an open seminar was held on the accession of the ISON project to the UN Basic space science initiative. • In June 2019 it was signed MoU with UN for cooperation of ISON with the new UN Open universe initiative (installation of telescopes in developing countries, training of observers, organization of observations, joint open database in UN).
BRICS telescope network proposal for observation of optical transients+BRICS data base at UN OUI BRICStelNet: ISON+PMO (China)+Pico dos Dias (Brazil)+installation of ISON/PMO telescopes in Brazil, India, South Africa and other countries BRICStelNetwill allow the optical observations of various types (integral lights, in filters including simultaneously in few filters, polarimetry, spectrometry, extra wide field etc..) around the globe May be started immediately, reasonable cost of project May be easy involved in BRICS flagship project[s]