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  1. A&P Chapter 4 Notes SKIN & BODY MEMBRANES

  2. SECTION 1 CLASSIFICATION OF BODY MEMBRANES

  3. BODY MEMBRANES • EPITHELIAL MEMBRANES • CUTANEOUS MEMBRANE • MUCOUS MEMBRANE • SEROUS MEMBRANE • CONNECTIVE TISSUE • SYNOVIAL MEMBRANES

  4. CUTANEOUS MEMBRANES IS THE SKIN STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM (KERATINIZED) UNDERLYING DERMIS = D.F.C.T. EXPOSED TO AIR IS A DRY MEMBRANE

  5. MUCOUS MEMBRANES COMPOSED OF EPITHELIUM RESTS ON L.C.T. LAMINA PROPRIA LINES ALL BODY CAVITIES OPENING TO EXTEROR RESPIRATORY, DIGESTIVE, URINARY, REPRODUCTIVE

  6. MUCOUS MEMBRANES STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS (MOUTH/ESOPHAGUS) OR SIMPLE COLUMNAR (DIG. TRACT) ALL ARE “WET”/MOIST MEMBRANES BATHED IN SECRETIONS (pg. 96)

  7. SEROUS MEMBRANES • SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM • RESTS ON AREOLAR C.T. • LINE BODY CAVITIES THAT ARE CLOSED TO THE EXTERIOR • OCCUR IN PAIRS: • PARIETAL – LINES ON VENTRAL BODY CAV. • VISCERAL – COVERS THE OUTSIDE OF THE ORGANS IN THAT CAVITY

  8. SEROUS MEMBRANES SEROUS LAYERS ARE SEPARATED BY SEROUS FLUID – SECRETED BY BOTH PARIETAL & VISCERAL MEMBRANES FLUID ALLOWS ORGANS TO SLIDE ACROSS CAVITY WALLS & EACH OTHER W/O FRICTION

  9. SEROUS MEMBRANES • NAMES OF SEROUS MEMBRANES = LOCATION • PERITONEUM-LINES THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY & COVERS THOSE ORGANS • PLEURA-SURROUND THE LUNGS; KEEPS LUNGS SEPARATE FROM THE HEART • PERICARDIUM-SURROUNDS THE HEART; KEEPS SEPARATE FROM THE LUNGS

  10. SEROUS MEMBRANES

  11. CONNECTIVE TISSUE MEMBRANES AKA-SYNOVIAL MEMBRANES SOFT, AREOLAR C.T NO EPITHELIAL CELLS LINE FIBROUS CAPSULES THAT SURROUND JOINTS LINE BURSAE SACS & TENDON SHEATHS PROVIDE SMOOTH SURFACE & SECRETE A LUBRICATING FLUID

  12. CONNECTIVE TISSUE MEMBRANES

  13. CONNECTIVE TISSUE MEMBRANES • BURSAE & TENDON SHEATHS– CUSHION ORGANS MOVING AGAINST EACH OTHER DURING MOVEMENT • TENDON MOVES ACROSS A BONY SURFACE

  14. SECTION 2 INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

  15. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM EXTERNAL COVERING OF THE BODY SKIN WATERPROOFS, CUSHIONS, PROTECTS REGULATE BODY TEMPERATURE SENSE PAIN

  16. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM • SKIN = CUTANEOUS MEMBRANE • FUNCTION=PROTECT • PARTS OF SKIN: • SWEAT GLANDS • OIL GLANDS INTEGUMENTARY • HAIR SYSTEM • NAILS

  17. BASIC SKIN FUNCTIONS EXTERNAL COVERING KEEPS WATER IN & OUT PLIABLE & TOUGH = PUNISHMENT INSULATES & CUSHIONS DEEPER ORGANS PROTECTS FROM MECHANICAL, CHEMICAL & THERMAL DAMAGE PG 98

  18. STRUCTURE OF SKIN • LAYERS OF SKIN: • EPIDERMIS: • STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS E.T. • KERATINIZES – TOUGHENS THE LAYER • DERMIS: • D.C.T. • FIRMLY CONNECTED TO EPIDERMIS • BLISTER=DERMIS & EPIDERMIS SEPARATE

  19. STRUCTURE OF SKIN • DERMIS:2 MAJOR REGIONS • PAPILLARY – PG 102 • UPPER DERMAL • MEISSNER’S CORPUSCLES-TOUCH RECEPTORS

  20. STRUCTURE OF SKIN • DERMIS:2 MAJOR REGIONS • RETICULAR – PG 102 • DEEPEST SKIN LAYER • BLOOD VESSELS, SWEAT/OIL GLANDS, PRESSURE RECEPTORS (PACINIAN CORPUSCLES)

  21. STRUCTURE OF SKIN • DERMIS:2 MAJOR REGIONS • COLLAGEN & ELASTIC FIBERS-TOUGHNESS, ELASTICITY, HYDRATION • RICH NERVE SUPPLY • PG. 102

  22. STRUCTURE OF SKIN • LAYERS OF SKIN: • EPIDERMIS: • DERMIS: • HYPODERMIS: • BELOW THE DERMIS • ADIPOSE TISSUE (SUBCUTANEOUS) • ANCHORS UNDERLYING ORGANS • SHOCK ABSORBER • INSULATES

  23. EPIDERMIS COMPOSED OF 5 LAYERS (STRATA): STRATUM BASALE SPINOSUM FROM GRANULOSUM INSIDE LUCIDUM OUT CORNEUM

  24. EPIDERMIS • AVASCULAR • CELLS ARE KERATINOCYTES – CELLS THAT PRODUCE TOUGH, PROTECTIVE LAYER 1. STRATUM BASALE DEEPEST LAYER OF EPIDERMIS • UNDERGOING CELL DIVISION • MILLIONS OF NEW CELLS DAILY

  25. EPIDERMIS 2. STRATUM SPINOSUM 3. STRATUM GRANULOSUM 4. STRATUM LUCIDUM • ONLY WHERE SKIN IS HAIRLESS & THICK • PALMS OF HANDS & SOLES OF FEET

  26. EPIDERMIS 5. STRATUM CORNEUM • OUTERMOST LAYER • 20-30 CELLS LAYERS THICK • CELLS ARE REPLACED BY CELLS FROM DEEPER STRATUM BASALE

  27. EPIDERMIS • MELANIN • COLOR PIGMENT FROM YELLOW – BROWN – BLACK • PRODUCED BY MELANOCYTES (STRATUM BASALE) • FRECKLES/MOLES – MELANIN CONCENTRATED IN ONE SPOT

  28. ALTERATIONS IN SKIN COLOR ERYTHEMA PALLOR BLANCHING PAGE 103 JAUNDICE BRUISES

  29. SECTION 3 SKIN APPENDAGES

  30. APPENDAGES OF SKIN CUTANEOUS GLANDS HAIR HAIR FOLLICLES NAILS ALL ARISE FROM EPIDERMIS

  31. CUTANEOUS GLANDS • ALL ARE EXOCRINE GLANDS • RELEASE SECRETIONS TO SKIN SURFACE VIA DUCTS • 2 CATEGORIES: • SEBACEOUS • SWEAT FORMED BY STRATUM BASALE

  32. SEBACEOUS GLANDS “OIL” GLANDS NOT IN PALMS/HANDS; SOLES/FEET DUCT EMPTIES INTO HAIR FOLLICLE OR TO SKIN SURFACE PRODUCE SEBUM- PG. 103 WHITEHEAD, BLACKHEAD, SEBORRHEA

  33. SWEAT GLANDS • SUDORIFEROUS GLANDS • 2.5 MILLION PER PERSON!!!! • 2 TYPES OF SWEAT GLANDS: • ECCRINE GLANDS • APOCRINE GLANDS

  34. ECCRINE GLANDS SWEAT GLAND MORE NUMEROUS PRODUCE SWEAT (PERSPIRATION ) TO THE SURFACE VIA A PORE HEAT REGULATION NERVE ENDINGS TO “READ” & SECRETE SWEAT

  35. APOCRINE GLANDS AXILLARY & GENITAL AREAS DUCTS EMPTY INTO HAIR FOLLICLES SECRETION HAS FATTY ACID & PROTEIN& IS ODORLESS BACTERIA LIVE ON SKIN FOR USE OF PROTEINS/FATS - ODOR

  36. HAIR • FUNCTION: • PROTECTION • HAS LOST ITS USEFULNESS • PRODUCED BY A FOLLICLE

  37. HAIR PARTS: PG. 105 ROOT –PART OF HAIR ENCLOSED IN THE FOLLICLE SHAFT-PART PROJECTING FROM THE SURFACE OF SKIN/SCALP HAIR BULB MATRIX-INFERIOR END OF FOLLICLE; “GROWTH ZONE”; DIVISION OF STRATUM BASALE EPITHELIAL CELLS

  38. HAIR PIGMENT – MELANOCYTES VARIETY OF SIZE & SHAPE ABSENT FROM PALMS, SOLES, NIPPLES, & LIPS BORN W/ ALL THE FOLLICLES THAT YOU WILL EVER HAVE PUBERTY – “HAIRIER” REGIONS

  39. HAIR FOLLICLE • INNER EPIDERMAL SHEATH • OUTER DERMAL SHEATH • SUPPLIES BLOOD VESSELS TO EPIDERMAL PORTION • ARRECTOR PILI – SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS; PG. 106; GOOSEBUMPS

  40. NAIL • SCALELIKE MODIFICATION OF EPIDERMIS • PARTS: • FREE EDGE • BODY-VISIBLE; ATTACHED PORTION • ROOT-EMBEDDED IN SKIN • NAIL FOLD-CUTICLE • NAIL BED-STRATUM BASALE BENEATH THE NAIL • NAIL MATRIX-RESPONSIBLE FOR NAIL GROWTH

  41. SECTION 4 SKIN ISSUES INFECTIONS/ ALLERGIES/ BURNS/CANCERS

  42. SKIN INFECTIONS/ALLERGIES ATHLETE’S FOOT BOILS/CARBUNCLES COLD SORES PAGE CONTACT DERMATITIS 107 IMPETIGO PSORIASIS

  43. BURNS • SEVERE DAMAGE & CELL DEATH CAUSED BY: • INTENSE HEAT • ELECTRICITY • UV RADIATION (SUNBURN) • CHEMICALS (ACIDS)

  44. BURNS MOST THREATENING TO SKIN CELLS ARE DESTROYED BODY LOSES ITS SUPPLY OF FLUIDS (PROTEINS & ELECTROLYTES) DEHYDRATION – KIDNEYS SHUT DOWN; RESULTING IN SHOCK LOST FLUIDS MUST BE REPLACED

  45. RULE OF 9’S - BURNS VOL. OF FLUID LOST CAN BE ESTIMATED BY DETERMINING BODY SURFACE THAT IS BURNED BODY IS DIVIDED INTO 11 AREAS EACH AREA = 9% OF SURFACE AREA PG. 108

  46. SEVERITY OF BURNS • FIRST DEGREE • ONLY EPIDERMIS IS DAMAGED • RED & SWOLLEN • NOT USUALLY SERIOUS • SECOND DEGREE • THIRD DEGREE

  47. SEVERITY OF BURNS • FIRST DEGREE • SECOND DEGREE • EPIDERMIS & UPPER DERMIS • RED WITH BLISTERS • EPITHELIAL CELLS STILL PRESENT FOR REGENERATION TO OCCUR • NO PERMANENT SCARRING • THIRD DEGREE

  48. SEVERITY OF BURNS • FIRST DEGREEPARTIAL THICKNESS • SECOND DEGREEBURNS • THIRD DEGREE – FULL THICKNESS BURN • DESTROY ENTIRE THICKNESS OF SKIN • BLANCHED/BLACKENED • NERVE ENDINGS DESTROYED; NO PAIN • REGENERATION NOT POSSIBLE • SKIN GRAFTING MUST BE DONE

  49. SKIN CANCER MOST ARE BENIGN (DO NOT SPREAD) SOME MALIGNANT (DO SPREAD) MOST COMMON TYPE OF CANCER IN HUMANS RISK FACTORS = EXPOSURE TO UV RADIATION IN SUNLIGHT; FREQUENT IRRITATION TO SKIN BY INFECTIONS, CHEMICALS, PHYSICAL TRAUMA

  50. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA LEAST MALIGNANT MOST COMMON SKIN CANCER STRATUM BASALE CELLS DO NOT FORM KERATIN NO BOUNDARY B/T EPIDERMIS & DERMIS PROLIFERATE & INVADE DERMIS & SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE PG. 109