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Chapter 34 Atherosclerosis - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 34 Atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a generalized and progressive disease that effects the arterial circulation. Statistical Data.

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Chapter 34Atherosclerosis

  • Atherosclerosis is a generalized and progressive disease that effects the arterial circulation.

Statistical data
Statistical Data

  • World Health Report documents that atherothrombosis has overtaken infectious disease as the leading cause of death worldwide representing 23% of all deaths.

  • In the United States cardiovascular disease, the major result of atherosclerosis leading to heart attack and stroke, affects over 71 million individuals with an annual mortality exceeding 900,000 per year.

  • This disease costs taxpayers approximately 400 billion dollars per year

Risk factors
Risk Factors

What are the major risk factors that can't be changed?

  • Increasing age 

  • Male sex (gender) 

  • Heredity (including race)

    What are the major risk factors you can modify, treat or control by changing

    your lifestyle or taking medicine?

  • Tobacco smoke 

  • High blood cholesterol 

  • High blood pressure 

  • Physical inactivity 

  • Obesity and overweight 

  • Diabetes mellitus 

  • What other factors contribute to heart disease risk?

  • Individual response to stress may be a contributing factor

  • Drinking too much alcohol

How does it start
How Does It Start?

  • Atherosclerosis usually begins with the epithelium, the inner most layer of the artery.

  • Damage can occur because of elevated cholesterol, high blood pressure, tobacco smoke, and diabetes.

  • Buildup occurs thickening the arterial wall, decreasing blood flow, and reducing the oxygen in the blood.

The five phases of atherosclerosis
The Five Phases of Atherosclerosis

  • Phase One: LDL deposits into the cells of the inner wall of the artery

  • Phase Two and Three: inflammatory cells move into the vessel wall and the plaque continues to grow, a fibrous cap is formed

  • Phase Four: the smooth muscle cell proliferation changes and begins to break down, the fibrous ruptures or the plaque is exposed to the blood stream, the plaque contains materials which encourage clotting

  • Phase Five: platelets are attracted to this prothrombotic material and a clot forms in the vessel which may interrupt blood flow and damage tissues

Prevention and treatment
Prevention and Treatment

  • Therapeutic lifestyle changes are important in managing risk factors.

  • It is important to emphasize healthy lifestyles in youth.

  • Drugs like statins also reduce the effects of athersclerosis.

The heart
The Heart

  • The heart is the most “news worthy” area atherosclerosis affects.

  • Atherosclerosis may affect the heart through such pathologies as myocardial infarctions, and angina.

  • Treatment includes clot-busting drugs and expandable stents.

Heart disease is not a man s disease
Heart Disease is NOT a Man’s Disease

  • Women tend to develop heart disease about ten years later than men.

  • Many public health initiatives have relied on studies comprised disproportionately of men.

  • In 1991, NHI launched the Women’s Health Initiative to study the affects of different treatments, dietary modifications, and supplements on generally healthy post menopausal women.