Download
slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
第四章 非正常航班的运行 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
第四章 非正常航班的运行

第四章 非正常航班的运行

422 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

第四章 非正常航班的运行

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. 第四章 非正常航班的运行 Chapter 4 The operation of off-normal flight

  2. §1 恶劣天气运行 The operation of the bad weather §2 飞机故障下的运行 The operation of airplane trouble

  3. §1 恶劣天气运行The operation of the bad weather 1 概述 Introduction 2 恶劣天气下运行原则 Principles for the bad weather 3 恶劣天气条件下的运行要求和处置程序 The operation requirements and procedures under the condition of abnorminable weather 4 风切变 Windshear

  4. 5 寒冷天气 Cold weather 6 炎热天气 Hot weather 7 颠簸区飞行 Flight in turbulence 8 火山灰 Volcanic ash 9 案例分析 Case analysis

  5. 1 概述Introduction 飞行前,机长和签派员应当根据气象情况,特别是最近的天气报告和预报,分析起飞降落机场和航路所经区域是否存在雷雨、结冰、低云、低能见度、风切变、火山灰等恶劣气象条件; Before the flight ,Captain and dispatcher should analyse the bad weather like thunderstorm、icing、low cloud、low visibility、windshear、volcanic ash in the take-off and landing airport and the areas of routes in accordance with meteorological conditions ,especially recent weather report and forcasts .

  6. 1 概述Introduction 机长和签派员应避免安排飞机通过有严重影响飞行安全的危险和恶劣气候的飞行区域,或许可飞机在恶劣天气影响下的机场起降; Captain and dispatcher should avoid arranging the airplane cross the flying areas which affect flight safety seriously and have bad weather,or permit the take-off and landing of the aircraft under the abnorminable weather

  7. 1 概述Introduction 在放行飞机时,应仔细考虑这些气象条件对飞行的影响,针对飞行航线和飞机的特点,采取谨慎可靠的放行方案或备份放行方案。 When realeasing the airplane ,captain and dispatcher should carefully consider the impact of the weather conditions on flight ,and take reliable and careful release scheme or backup in view of air route and the aircraft feature

  8. 1 概述Introduction 当遇有恶劣天气时,当班签派员应时刻跟踪机场在恶劣天气下的运行情况,给予飞行机组相应的支援和建议,尤其在夜间、航班延误或飞行机组执勤时间较长的情况下,更要注意掌握飞行动态,严格掌握机组执勤时间,严禁超时工作; When encountering bad weather , dispatch on duty should constantly mornitor the operational condition of the airport in bad weather,and give the flight crew cooresponding supports and suggestions ,especially pay more attention to flight activities and controling working time at night or during the filght delay or flight crew working for long.Overtime is forbidden.

  9. 1 概述Introduction 当遇有恶劣天气时,要提高放行飞机的放行控制能力,确保飞行中的机组能够随时获得有关不利天气条件的气象预报(雷暴、强颠簸、强降水和结冰情况)、目的地及备降机场气象预报的更新资料,以及在签派放行单中指定的机场出现未预料到的低于运行标准的天气观测报告或预报。 when encountering bad weather ,the ability of realese control should be improved and the crew on the flight should be ensured to obtain the forcasts of bad weather conditions (thunderstorm、severe turbulence、strong precipitaion and icing)、 update for weather forcasts for destination and alternate aerodrome,and a designed airport under an unsuspected minimum weather or report in dispatch release

  10. 1 概述Introduction 在恶劣天气条件下运行时,各类运行保障服务部门和航站代理要加强对飞行机组的服务和保障工作;运行控制部门或签派服务代理部门要及时提供必要的签派放行文件,便于飞行机组及时和集中精力进行准备。 Operation in adverse weather conditions, the various security services and terminals to run agents on the flight crew to strengthen the services and security work; operational control department or dispatch service agent to provide the necessary departments to dispatch timely release of documents, easy to fly Units in a timely manner and concentrate on preparation.

  11. 飞行机组应根据掌握的恶劣天气条件下的各种信息和运行区域的特点,对飞行运行实施正确判断,并应将飞行中观察到和遇到的任何恶劣天气现象报告空中交通管制部门和公司运行控制部门(飞行签派室);存在危险或恶劣天气时,飞行机组应尽早采取措施以避开这种天气活动区。飞行机组应根据掌握的恶劣天气条件下的各种信息和运行区域的特点,对飞行运行实施正确判断,并应将飞行中观察到和遇到的任何恶劣天气现象报告空中交通管制部门和公司运行控制部门(飞行签派室);存在危险或恶劣天气时,飞行机组应尽早采取措施以避开这种天气活动区。 Flight crew should master a variety of adverse weather conditions and operation of regional characteristics of information, accurate assessment of the implementation of flight operations, which should be observed in flight and encountered the report of any severe weather phenomena and air traffic control department of the company running Control Department (Flight Dispatch Office); there is danger or bad weather, the flight crew should take early measures to avoid this kind of weather activity area. 1 概述Introduction

  12. 在恶劣天气下飞行时,飞行机组应明确分工,预习应急和特殊处置程序,严格遵照所飞机型的操纵程序,结合恶劣天气运行的特点,充分考虑飞机结构限制、发动机使用限制和保护措施,使用正确的符合机型性能的限制速度,正确使用影响飞机起飞着陆的各种控制装置,防止操纵失误。在恶劣天气下飞行时,飞行机组应明确分工,预习应急和特殊处置程序,严格遵照所飞机型的操纵程序,结合恶劣天气运行的特点,充分考虑飞机结构限制、发动机使用限制和保护措施,使用正确的符合机型性能的限制速度,正确使用影响飞机起飞着陆的各种控制装置,防止操纵失误。 When flying under bad weather ,flight crew should be clear division of labour ,prepare the emergency and special operatioinal procedure .They should abide the manipulation procedure of the aircraft ,and fully consider the structure limitiation、engine using limitation and protection measurs ,and correctly utilize speed limitation to the performance in combination of the operational feature of bad weather.Flight crew properly use all kinds of control equipments for taking-off and landing in case they make faulty control 1 概述Introduction

  13. 颠簸区飞行时,飞行机组必须考虑飞机结构限制,严格保持机型颠簸速度,并应接通发动机点火电门。 结冰区飞行时,飞行机组应严格执行发动机防冰使用要求,不得基于飞机风挡结构的目视结冰参考使用发动机防冰。 When flying in turbulence ,flight crew must consider the structure limiation of the airplane,keep speed strictly and turn on engine ignition switch.Flying in icing , crew should execute requirments of engine anti-icing ,and cannot use anti-icing based on visual icing reference on windshied structure of the aircraft 1 概述Introduction

  14. 2 恶劣天气下运行原则operational principles for bad weather 2.1 避开原则 principles for avoid 应在保证避开恶劣天气的前提下继续飞行; Filght should be guranteed to continue on the premise of avoiding the bad weather 运行中应采取一切监视和观察手段防止进入、误入或通过已知的中度以上结冰区、雷暴区或强颠簸区; Airplane should be prevented to enter misguided into or go through the known moderate icing thunderstorm or severe turbulence areas

  15. 2 恶劣天气下运行原则operational principles for bad weather 2.1 避开原则 principles for avoid 离港前和巡航期间,应持续监视目的地机场的气象条件,并始终目视和使用机上气象雷达观察沿航路的气象情况; Pilots should mornitor the weather conditions of destination continualy,and visual all the time and use redar on the airplane to observe the conditions of the air route during departure and cruise; 如机长计划绕飞中强度雷雨时,应考虑机载导航和通信设备的有效性; If the captain plans to go round moderate and severe thunderstorm,he should consider the validity of airborne navigation and communication apparatus

  16. 2 恶劣天气下运行原则operational principles for bad weather 2.1 避开原则 principles for avoid 如不慎通过或进入危险区域,应谨慎及时地使飞机避开这些区域。 If the airplane goes through or enter hazard areas ,crew should make the airplane avoid these areas carefully and promptly .

  17. 2.2 正确判断原则 Correct principle for judgement 在恶劣天气条件下,飞行机组更要密切配合细致分工,协助机长正确判断; Flight crew should work in close coordination and divide the work carefully to help the captain make correct judgement. 2 恶劣天气下运行原则operational principles for bad weather

  18. 机长应正确使用气象雷达,根据恶劣条件的具体情况,严格执行公司运行标准,正确判断对飞行的影响,及时采取等待、备降、中止进近、复飞等决断措施;机长应正确使用气象雷达,根据恶劣条件的具体情况,严格执行公司运行标准,正确判断对飞行的影响,及时采取等待、备降、中止进近、复飞等决断措施; Captain should proper use weather redar,according to concret conditions, carry out operation standard of the airline strictly,judge the impace on flight and take the decisions of holding、landing at alternate、aborting approach and going around;

  19. 恶劣天气条件下飞行机组应保持冷静,及时向管制员报告运行状况,听从指挥,避免忙乱失措和忙中出错;恶劣天气条件下飞行机组应保持冷静,及时向管制员报告运行状况,听从指挥,避免忙乱失措和忙中出错; Flight crew should keep calm when they fly in bad weather ,and report the operational conditions to the controllers.Take orders , avoid being shattered and making mistakes in hurry. 2 恶劣天气下运行原则operational principles for bad weather

  20. 恶劣天气条件下飞行机组应防止各种复杂因素影响或干扰,应集中精力对飞机进行控制(高度、位置、与其它飞机的间隔),防止低于安全高度、误入禁区、造成危险接近等不安全事件。 Flight crew should prevent influnece and interference of complex factors, and focuse on controlling the airplane(altitude、position and interval)in case the aircraft is low safety altitude or enter prohibite areas or make unsafe incidents like dangerous approach. 2 恶劣天气下运行原则operational principles for bad weather

  21. 2.3 周密准备原则 Principles for thorough preparation 当存在恶劣天气条件下运行时,飞行机组更要加强准备,提前采取各项行动准备预案,在起飞或下降简令中明确如下内容: Flight crew should be better prepared and plan in advance during flight in bad weather .The breifing of taking off and landing reads as follows:

  22. 在起飞、着陆、中止进近或复飞的机组分工或喊话、复飞绕飞航线和备份航线计划、中止进近或复飞决断和条件、起飞着陆天气特点及特别运行注意事项(反推、减速板、刹车使用、侧风操纵等);在起飞、着陆、中止进近或复飞的机组分工或喊话、复飞绕飞航线和备份航线计划、中止进近或复飞决断和条件、起飞着陆天气特点及特别运行注意事项(反推、减速板、刹车使用、侧风操纵等); • Flight crew under division of labour call the controller ,go around , make backup for cruise plan ,abort approach or missed approach decision and conditions ,the weather informations for taking off and landing and other operational points for attention(inverse,air brake ,speed brakes cross control and so on)

  23. 在恶劣天气条件下运行时,飞行机组应熟悉和了解获得的各类有关信息,明确相关的运行标准,如根据跑道湿滑状况和刹车效应等级,确定不同等级条件下对应的机型侧风运行标准,如果判定跑道属于污染跑道,还应遵守公司关于污染跑道的相关规定;在恶劣天气条件下运行时,飞行机组应熟悉和了解获得的各类有关信息,明确相关的运行标准,如根据跑道湿滑状况和刹车效应等级,确定不同等级条件下对应的机型侧风运行标准,如果判定跑道属于污染跑道,还应遵守公司关于污染跑道的相关规定; Flight crew should be familiar and know to obtain all kinds of information,and make sure related operational standard .For example crew should have clear crosswind operational criteria of the aircraft under different levels by the wet conditions of runway and effect of brake.If the runway belongs to contamination,crew should abide related regulations about contaminated runway of the airline. 2.3 周密准备原则 Principles for thorough preparation

  24. 在恶劣天气条件下运行时,飞行机组应进一步确定飞机飞行限制数据和机上相关设备正常工作状态,以确定飞机飞行性能和运行能力(如飞机除冰能力、MEL对除冰防冰能力限制、气象雷达的工作性能等),防止因工作系统故障造成错误判断和运行失误。在恶劣天气条件下运行时,飞行机组应进一步确定飞机飞行限制数据和机上相关设备正常工作状态,以确定飞机飞行性能和运行能力(如飞机除冰能力、MEL对除冰防冰能力限制、气象雷达的工作性能等),防止因工作系统故障造成错误判断和运行失误。 Filght crew should further ascertain the filght limitation data and normal condition of related equipments on the airplane to evaluate performance of aircraft and operational ability (like de-icing ability of the airplane, limitation of MEL to de-icing and anti-icing ,the performance of weather redar so on),and prevent faulty judgement and operations for work system failure. 2.3 周密准备原则 Principles for thorough preparation

  25. 恶劣天气条件下的运行要求和处置程序operational requirement and procedure under the bad weather 3.1雷暴(雨)天气 Thunderstorm (rain)weather 雷暴是指伴有阵风骤雨、电闪雷鸣的积雨云系统的统称,是由强烈的大气对流引起的中小尺度天气系统。强烈的雷暴可以引起暴雨、冰雹和大风,有时还会引起龙卷风。 Thunderstorm is collective name that cumulonimbus system is accompanied by wind gust of showers ,and meso-and micro-scale systems caused by tense atmosphere convection.Severe thunderstorm can produce rainfall,hail and strong wind,sometimes lead to tornado.

  26. 雷暴可带来冰雹、严重颠簸、暴雨、闪电、电击、阵风、风切变及结冰等多种破坏性的危害。雷暴可带来冰雹、严重颠簸、暴雨、闪电、电击、阵风、风切变及结冰等多种破坏性的危害。 Thunderstorm can bring hail,severe turbulence,rain,lighting,lighting stroke,gust wind ,windshear and icing and other destructive damage 雷暴对飞行的危害Harm of thunderstorm to filght

  27. 1)下冲暴流和微下冲气流 Downburst and micro-downburst 雷暴能引起地面产生大于18米/秒的雷暴大风的突发性强下降气流称为下冲暴流。在下冲气流的整个直线气流中,还带有一些小尺度辐散性气流,这些小尺度外流系统称为微下冲气流。 Sudden decending air current which has 18 m/s thunder wind on the ground that is cased by thunder is called downburst.There are some small scale divergence air current called micro-downburst during the whole straight airflow 雷暴对飞行的危害Harm of thunderstorm to filght

  28. 2)雷击Thunderstrike 雷暴能对飞机产生雷击,造成飞机损坏(击穿飞机蒙皮、损坏气象雷达、磁罗盘的永久误差)和人员伤亡。 Thunderstorm can stike the airplane to lead to the damage of the aircraft( breaking through skin,breaking down weather redar, permanent error of compass) 雷暴对飞行的危害Harm of thunderstorm to filght

  29. 3) 高度表Altimeter 使气压式高度表指示产生误差,雷雨天气下气压的迅速变化,可使高度表指示产生高达100英尺以上的误差。 Thunderstorm can make the indication of Barometric Altimeter cause error,and make altimeter indicator cause over 100 feet error for the atmospheric pressure changing rapidly 雷暴对飞行的危害Harm of thunderstorm to filght

  30. 4) 能见度 Visibility 雷雨天气强降水的情况下使能见度变差,滂沱大雨会降低飞机风挡玻璃的清晰度,造成视觉上的错觉,影响驾驶员对飞机距跑道地平面高度的判断;容易误低为高,或盲目拉高,造成着陆失误。 Visibility will be worse under thunderstorm, and heavy rain can reduce the definition of wind shield to make pilots have illusions so that it can affect the pilot to make judgement about airplane’s altitude to the horizon of runway.Pilot will be easily think higher or ease back blindly to make landing faulty 雷暴对飞行的危害Harm of thunderstorm to filght

  31. 5) 风切变 Windshear 雷雨天气常常形成风向风速的急剧变化,起飞和着陆易遭受到风切变;跑道上湿滑加上不定飓风或阵风影响,飞机极易冲滑偏出跑道,酿成重大事故。 Taking off and landing easily encounter windshear for wind direction and speed chaning rapidly cased by thunderstorm weather.The airplane easily skid off runway to cause major accident because the runway is wet and slippery together with hurricane or gust wind 雷暴对飞行的危害Harm of thunderstorm to filght

  32. 雷暴天气下飞行必须遵守的规定Rules for flight under thunderstorm 机场有雷雨或雷暴覆盖时,禁止飞机起降,或试图起飞和进近着陆。机场仅存在降雨条件下,禁止在昼间强降水,夜间中度以上(含)降水条 件下起降。禁止飞入积雨云或浓积云中或试图从云下绕飞雷雨。 The airplane must be prohibited to take off and land or try to takeoff and approach to land when the airport is covered with thunderstorm.Taking off or landing is forbidden under the conditions of which has severe rainfall in the daytime,over moderate(including moderate) rainfall at night.airplane is forbidden to fly into cumulonimbus or CB or go round thunderstorm below the cloud.

  33. 起飞爬升航路上或着陆进近航路上有雷雨封闭,无法绕行;起飞爬升航路上或着陆进近航路上有雷雨封闭,无法绕行; The airplane cannot go around for thunderstorm closing on takingoff climbing or approach to land curise 雷雨大面积封堵目的地机场进离场航路,无法绕行; The airplane cannot go around when the approach and departure cruise of destination airport is blocked by thunderstorm 雷暴天气下飞行必须遵守的规定Rules for flight under thunderstorm

  34. 目的地机场附近有大面积雷暴天气系统,且雷雨前锋向机场移动,趋于覆盖机场,预计飞机起飞爬升或着陆进近将遇到雷雨覆盖;目的地机场附近有大面积雷暴天气系统,且雷雨前锋向机场移动,趋于覆盖机场,预计飞机起飞爬升或着陆进近将遇到雷雨覆盖; When the nearby destination airport has extensive thunderstorm weather system ,besides, thunderstorm front move to the airport tending to cover the airport ,and take off climbing or landing route is estimated to be covered by thunderstorm 雷暴主体移动至距机场起飞航路5海里、着陆航路3海里,对正常运行严重影响; Subject of thunderstorm cause serious impact on normal operations when it moves at 5 nms to airport taking off route ,3 nms to landing route 雷暴天气下飞行必须遵守的规定Rules for flight under thunderstorm

  35. 当雷暴主体移离机场,或覆盖机场的雷暴处于消散阶段,但机场仍存在强降水现象。当以上情况存在时飞行行机组应根据雷暴的位置、移动的速度方向、雷暴的强度和风向风速对机场运行的影响,及早进行等待、绕飞和备降决断当雷暴主体移离机场,或覆盖机场的雷暴处于消散阶段,但机场仍存在强降水现象。当以上情况存在时飞行行机组应根据雷暴的位置、移动的速度方向、雷暴的强度和风向风速对机场运行的影响,及早进行等待、绕飞和备降决断 When thunderstrom move off airport ,or thunderstorm cover the airport disappears ,but severe preciputaion still exists ,flight crew should make decisions on holding ,going round and landing at alternate in accordance with the position of thunderstorm,direction of moving,the strength of thunderstorm and impact of wind direction and speed on airport. 雷暴天气下飞行必须遵守的规定Rules for flight under thunderstorm

  36. 在起飞爬升离场或进近着陆进场飞行时,必须正确使用气象雷达,选择绕飞航路,遵守绕飞规定;在起飞爬升离场或进近着陆进场飞行时,必须正确使用气象雷达,选择绕飞航路,遵守绕飞规定; Filght crew must use redar to select cruise of going round and abide the regulations of going round during takeing off ,climbing for departure or approach ,landing for arraival 必须注意飞机的高度,防止低于安全高度飞行,防止与其他飞机危险接近; Pay attention to the altitude to prevent flying below safety altitude and making dangerous approach with other aircraft. 雷暴天气下飞行必须遵守的规定Rules for flight under thunderstorm

  37. 同时要注意满足稳定进近的要求; Meanwhile pay attention to meet the requirement of approach ; 飞机进近着陆到达DH/DA或MDH/MDA时,如果遇到大雨严重影响飞行机组视线和正常着陆操作,必须立即执行复飞程序; When the airplane approach to land at DH/DA or MDH/MDA,if encountering heavy rain which can affect flight crew vision and normal landing control seriously ,go around procedure must be executed promptly ; 雷暴天气下飞行必须遵守的规定Rules for flight under thunderstorm

  38. 只有确信着陆机场五边和一边起飞航径没有雷雨降水影响正常着陆和复飞时,才能决断进行进近和着陆。只有确信着陆机场五边和一边起飞航径没有雷雨降水影响正常着陆和复飞时,才能决断进行进近和着陆。 Only if the final and upwind are be sure to have no thunderstorm which have impact on normal landing and go around , decision can be made to make approach and landing 雷暴天气下飞行必须遵守的规定Rules for flight under thunderstorm

  39. 雷雨天气条件下的飞行前操作程序Pre-flight control procedure under thunderstorm 飞行准备时,要根据所飞航线的特点、季节特点及南北方的天气特点,重点研究遇雷雨时的绕飞方法和绕飞的注意事项,查阅相关的飞行资料(禁 区、危险区、航线安全高度、备降场等)。 When doing flight preparation ,flight crew which base on the feature of the route ,season and the weather of north and south, should stress the method and points for attention of going round, check related flight information( forbidden areas ,dangerous areas, safety altitude of route, destination etc.)

  40. 飞行前,机长和飞行签派员应根据气象情况,特别是最近天气报告,分析雷雨性质、发展趋势、移动方向和速度,选择绕飞雷雨区的航线和备降机场,共同研究决定航空器的放行;飞行前,机长和飞行签派员应根据气象情况,特别是最近天气报告,分析雷雨性质、发展趋势、移动方向和速度,选择绕飞雷雨区的航线和备降机场,共同研究决定航空器的放行; Before the flight,captain and dispatcher should analyze the nature of thunderstorm,trend for development,movement direction and speed ,selection for course of going round thunderstorm and alternate according to weather conditions ,especially recent forcasts.They work together on releasing the airplane 雷雨天气条件下的飞行前操作程序Pre-flight control procedure under thunderstorm

  41. 当天气预报或天气实况有雷雨时,证实机载气象雷达处于完好状态。当天气预报或天气实况有雷雨时,证实机载气象雷达处于完好状态。 When forcast or actual weather reporting the thunderstorm,the airborne redar should be certified to be work normally. 雷雨天气条件下的飞行前操作程序Pre-flight control procedure under thunderstorm

  42. 当航站区域被雷雨覆盖时,不要进入或从该区域起飞,除非有不受已知雷雨影响的航路,并可以沿该航路飞行;当航站区域被雷雨覆盖时,不要进入或从该区域起飞,除非有不受已知雷雨影响的航路,并可以沿该航路飞行; • When the terminal areas are covered with thunderstorm,do not enter or take off from this area Unless the course is not being affected by the thunderstorm,the airplane can fly along the route. • 当无法避开本区域和航路上的雷雨时,不得签派放行。 • Release cand not be followed when thunderstorm on local area and route cannot be avoided.

  43. 绕飞雷雨操作程序Procedure of going round thunderstorm 经ATC许可,可以绕航 Going round can be followed by permission of ATC 如果联系不上ATC,机长可以行使应急权力,以便绕飞存在的危险天气; If not contacting ATC,captain can execute the power of emergency to go round the bad weather

  44. 当已知飞行航路有雷雨,并且可以绕飞时,起飞前飞行机组必须使用气象雷达,判断雷雨的分布,确定其绕飞航路,并监听塔台的指挥,必要时向塔台报告起飞后绕飞意图;当已知飞行航路有雷雨,并且可以绕飞时,起飞前飞行机组必须使用气象雷达,判断雷雨的分布,确定其绕飞航路,并监听塔台的指挥,必要时向塔台报告起飞后绕飞意图; When the thunderstorm on the flight route is known,and going round can be permited,flight crew must use redar before the flight to judge the distribution of thunderstorm , be certain the route of going round,mornitori the tower and if necessary,report the attention of going round after taking off to the tower 绕飞雷雨操作程序Procedure of going round thunderstorm

  45. 飞行中遇到雷雨时,机长必须判明雷雨强度、分布情况、移动方向和云底云顶高度,决定绕飞或返航备降,并将决定报告空中交通管制部门,严禁飞入积雨云和浓积云。飞行中遇到雷雨时,机长必须判明雷雨强度、分布情况、移动方向和云底云顶高度,决定绕飞或返航备降,并将决定报告空中交通管制部门,严禁飞入积雨云和浓积云。 When encountering thunderstorm during the flight,captain must make judegement on the strength of thunderstorm, distribution,movement and ceiling height, and decide to go round or return to alternate .He should report his decision to the air traffic control department .flying into cumulonimbus and CBs is forbidden 绕飞雷雨操作程序Procedure of going round thunderstorm

  46. 绕飞雷雨时,必须考虑到有转弯退出的余地,并遵守下列规定:绕飞雷雨时,必须考虑到有转弯退出的余地,并遵守下列规定: When going round the thunderstorm,pilot must consider turning and withdrawing room and abiding the rules as followed: 绕飞雷雨操作程序Procedure of going round thunderstorm

  47. 只准有雷达的航空器或根据气象雷达探测的资料能确切判明雷雨位置的情况下,方可在云中绕飞,但距离积雨云(浓积云)不得少于15海里;只准有雷达的航空器或根据气象雷达探测的资料能确切判明雷雨位置的情况下,方可在云中绕飞,但距离积雨云(浓积云)不得少于15海里; Going round in the cloud can be permited only if the airplane has redar or redar information can indicate the position of thunderstorm ,but the airplane is not less than 15 nms far from cumulonimbus (CBs ) 只准机舱有增压或氧气设备和具有相应升限的航空器,从云上绕飞,但是,机组在云上绕飞时,应当有相应的机动飞行裕度; Going round above the cloud can be permited only if plane as pressurized cabin or oxygen system and related ascending limit.But,crew should have coorespongding margin when they go round ;

  48. 只准在安全高度以上,偏离航线不超过导航设施的有效半径范围内绕飞(有惯性导航设备的航空器除外);只准在安全高度以上,偏离航线不超过导航设施的有效半径范围内绕飞(有惯性导航设备的航空器除外); Going round must be permited at above the safety altitude,and drifing off course less than the effective radius range of navigation equipment(except for airplane which has inertial navigation); 云外绕飞时,距离积雨云(浓积云)不得少于5海里; When going round off the cloud,the airplane is not less than 5nms far from cumulonimbus and CBs ; 绕飞雷雨操作程序Procedure of going round thunderstorm

  49. 两个云体之间不少于10海里,并判断确定没有雷击危险时,方可从中间通过;两个云体之间不少于10海里,并判断确定没有雷击危险时,方可从中间通过; When not less than 10 nms is between two clouds and no thunderstrike danger is certained ,the airplane can go through them 只准昼间从云下目视绕飞雷雨,但航空器与云底的垂直距离不得少于400米; The airplane can be permited to go round below cloud below the cloud visualy,but the vertical distance beween airplane and ceiling is not less than 400meters 飞行真实高度在平原、丘陵地区不得低于300米; The true altitude over the plane and hills is not less than 300 meters 绕飞雷雨操作程序Procedure of going round thunderstorm

  50. 在山区不得低于600米; Not less than 600 meters in the mountains; 航空器距主降水区不得少于10海里; The airplane is not less than 10 nms from major precipitation area 在6000米的高度上不少于10海里,在7500米的高度上不少于10海里,在9000米的高度上不少于20海里,在0度等温线附近应增加绕飞距离; Principles for going round thunderstorm from upwind is :not less than 10 nms at 6000ms , not less than 10 nms at 7500ms, not less than 20nms at 9000ms , at 0°isotherm,distance of going round should be increased 绕飞雷雨操作程序Procedure of going round thunderstorm