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Peacemaking and Peacekeeping. International Relations from 1918 to 1936. World War One was coming to an end, shortly after the US’ entrance into the war in 1917. By 1918, protests and strikes had broken out in Berlin about the effects the war was having on Germany and the rest of Europe.

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Peacemaking and Peacekeeping

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    1. Peacemaking and Peacekeeping International Relations from 1918 to 1936

    2. World War One was coming to an end, shortly after the US’ entrance into the war in 1917. • By 1918, protests and strikes had broken out in Berlin about the effects the war was having on Germany and the rest of Europe. • Kaiser Wilhelm II stepped down on November 9, 1918 and an armistice ending the war was signed two days later. • The war of militarism, imperialism, nationalism, and alliances had come to an end but the peace following the war did not come easy. 1918-An Introduction

    3. President of the US throughout WWI • He had full control over the US’ entry into the war and did not keep his promise to “keep us out of war” • He viewed entering the war as a step towards peace, a war to “end all wars” • This adhered to his ideology and goal to avoid conflicts • Wilson proposed and fought for the Fourteen Points to ensure postwar peace Woodrow Wilson

    4. Open Diplomacy • Countries should not have secret alliances • Freedom of the Seas • During peace and war-time; due to incidents such as the Lusitania and other problems with German boats • Removal of Economic Barriers • Trade barriers between countries will be reduced • Reduction of Armaments • Weapon production and possession should be reduced because no one needs them if there is no war • Adjustment of Colonial Claims • this was the time when empires were being formed and the colonial powers were seeking to build theirs by claiming countries • colonial ties were to be readjusted on behalf of both the country’s inhabitants and the major powers in an attempt to avoid more conflict The Fourteen Points (1-5)

    5. Conquered Territories in Russia • the territories of Russia that had been invaded were to be evacuated • Russia was to be allowed to join the US, Britain, and France as one of the major powers • Preservation of Belgium’s Sovereignty • Belgium had fallen under the control of Germany and its sovereignty had become a big deal • Belgium was to be given the right to choose their own government and act as a free country • Restoration of French Territories • All territory was to be returned to the French and restored (Alsace-Lorraine) • Redrawing of Italian Borders • their land that they lost was to be given back to them and their old borders were to be restored • Division of Austria-Hungary • The Balkan nations, including Serbia, were given free access to the Red Sea and their nations that had been claimed by empires were restored The Fourteen points (6-10)

    6. Redrawing of Balkan Boundaries • The Balkan nations, including Serbia, were given free access to the Red Sea and their nations that had been claimed by empires were restored • Limitations on Turkey (the country, not the food) • The Turkish portion of the Ottoman Empire was given sovereignty, other countries under Turkish control were given autonomy, and the Dardanelles were opened up for free passage • Establishment of an Independent Poland • Poland and other Polish territories were given political and economic freedom as well as access to the seas • League of Nations • The League would guarantee political independence and territorial integrity to all nations that joined The Fourteen points (11-14)

    7. France: George Clemenceau wanted to punish Germany for destroying French land and starting the war by making them pay reparations and destroying their economy • Great Britain: David Lloyd George wanted to punish Germany while still allowing for recovery • Italy: Vittorio Orlando wanted the land he was promised upon entering the war The Other Peacemakers’ Goals

    8. The treaty was signed on June 28, 1919 after six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference • The treaty’s provisions mostly favored the French • Wilson’s 14 Points and the Italian’s wishes were mostly ignored the whole conference Treaty of Versailles

    9. Land that Germany had taken from Germany as well as some of their territory was given to other countries or put under the control of the League of Nations • Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France • Eupen & Malmady were given to Belgium • Northern Schelswig was given to Denmark • Hultschin was given to Czechoslovakia • West Prussia, Posen, & Upper Silesia were given to Poland • Saar, Danzig, & Memel were put under control of the League of Nations; citizens were to choose whether or not to stay in Germany • The League of Nations took Germany’s overseas colonies • Germany’s army was reduced to 100,000 men; they were not allowed tanks, air force, or submarines and were limited to 6 capital ships; Rhineland was made a Demilitarized Zone where no weapons or soldiers were allowed; Allied armies occupied the Rhine for 15 years Treaty of Versailles: Territory and Military

    10. With such major land losses, Germany would also lose their industrial areas which hurt their economy • Germany would also have to pay reparations and was forbidden to unite with Austria to hinder economic potential • The treaty also established the War Guilt Clause that all blame towards Germany as well as created the League of Nations Treaty of Versailles: Financial and Other Issues

    11. Treaty of Saint Germain • signed on September 10, 1919 by the Allies of WWI and the Republic of Austria • The treaty dissolved the Austro-Hungarian Empire (along with Trianon) • Austria had to reduce their army to 30,000 men and were required to pay war reparations • Because of the split of the empire, land was lost to Czechoslovakia, Romania, Yugoslavia, and Poland • Treaty of Trainon • signed on June 4, 1920 by the Allies of WWI and Hungary • it regulated their independent status and established their borders, resulting in the country having 72% less land than before • reparations were required to be paid and their borders were largely reduced Treaties of Saint Germain and Trianon

    12. The Treaty was signed by Bulgaria on November 27, 1919. • It required army reductions to 20,000 men and reparations of $100 million • They had to surrender land to Yugoslavia, which cut off their access to the Aegean Sea, as well as captured land from the war and thus restore original borders • It led to a “national catastrophe” in Bulgaria Treaty of Neuilly

    13. The Treaty of Sevres was signed on August 10, 1920 between the Allies of WWI and the Ottoman Empire • It established the borders, countries, and relations of the Ottoman Empireand mainly dealt with the distribution of Turkish lands and the Turkish Straits, which were put under the control of the League of Nations • France and Britain split the land of Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Transjordan, and Palestine • Sevres was replaced by the Treaty of Lausanne on July 24, 1923 • It ended the state of war between Turkey and the British Empire Treaty of Sevres/Lausanne

    14. The Treaty of Versailles became known as a Diktat, for Germany had no choice but to sign it and face a depression and destruction of their country or to face an ally invasion • Overall, the treaties changed the boundaries of several European countries, led to the creation of new countries, and allowed several countries that were no longer controlled by empires to gain their autonomy and sovereignty. • Economically, most countries that weren’t on the Allies’ side had to pay reparations and watched their economy become depleted. The Allies, however, were able to rebuild their countries and economically flourished throughout the twenties The Impact of the Treaties

    15. Wilson did not want conquered territories to be annexed, hence why the system was created to regulate and maintain the states • The purpose was for the “well-being and development of the people in the territories,” but it did give the League control • The mandates were broken into classes depending on their readiness for autonomy. • A: Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, Transjordan and Iraq were ready for independence soon • B: The German African territories that were split amongst Belgium, Britain and France had no immediate prospects of independence • C: These mandates were composed of countries that were underdeveloped and economically weak and went to nearby empires The Mandate System

    16. There was an idea that collective security and the League of Nations would create a more peaceful world and reduce the need for extensive armaments • There was belief that the armed races had been a major cause of the war-there was a chance that disarmament would reduce the chance of another war • There was potential of improving the economic status • The 1920s were peaceful and seemed to be because of the reduced large military • Optimism of the Locarno Pact and Kellogg-Briand Agreement served to support this general view point • The League of Nations was to promote the cause of world disarmament as part of the mandate to maintain peace Disarmament and its Importance

    17. After WWI, a Naval arms race continued between the UK, Japan and the U.S. • The Washington Conference was held to attempt at diffusing the situation • Japan’s desire to expand was increasing and the US and Japan became suspicious of each other with intentions for China. • The UK had a defensive alliance with Japan since 1902, and could be dragged into a US-Japanese war against the US • The Washington Naval Conference was held from 1921-1922 • The final agreement was that they would limit the number of battleships in their fleets as well as limiting the size of cruisers and aircraft carriers • New battleships were not allowed to be built for 10 years following • This was the most successful of the post-war disarmament conferences Washington Conference

    18. US, UK, France, Italy and Japan met in London to revise and extend the agreements made at the Washington Naval Conference in 1922 • They increased the ration of ships (10:10:7) The size and number of cruisers, destroyers and submarines each country could possess was determined • Italy and France refused to take part, but did agree to continue the ban on Capital ships for 5 more years. • Submarine Warfare rules were also made • A sub could not sink a ship unless the passengers and crew were removed to a place of safety • The Treaty was meant to remain in effect until 1936… • In 1935 the major powers met again to renegotiate the London treaty that was to expire in 1936 • The London Naval Treaty was a complete failure • Japan did not want to submit to the limits on her naval construction • The UK, US and France signed the Treaty in respect to cruiser tonnage… All other agreements collapsed after 1936 The London Naval Conference of 1930

    19. The Great Depression reduced international cooperation enthusiasm • Big issue was distinguishing between offensive and defensive weapons • US called for offensive weapons to be elimination to came nations feel more secure • The offensive-defensive weapon debate lead to a series of debates that undermined the entire conference. • Any decisions made had no enforcement • Germany argued that all nations should reduce the size of their military to Germany’s or Germany should be allowed to increase theirs to the same size • Germany withdrew from the conference in July 1932 but rejoined in 1933 with Hitler as the Chancellor • Hitler proposed the same demands and after being rejected once again, withdrew from the Conference and the League • The pact was never ratified because of French objections and no agreement was made in the end Geneva Conference

    20. An International Organization created in 1919. It was designed to provide a method of resolving international tensions in a peaceful manner through the concept of collective security. What was the League of Nations?

    21. The Corfu Incident • Greece and Albania were having a dispute over the borders. Italy tried to solve the problem and sent in troops. • In August of 1923 and Italian general and three of his assistants were murdered in Greece • Italy demanded that Greece would pay 50 million lira and execute the responsible party • The killers were unidentified so Greece took over the island of Corfu • The League condemned the Italian aggression and Italians left Corfu in September • This is important because the League did not have the power to compel Italy to stop or submit to arbitration • Peacemaking would work against the smaller nations provided that the stronger member(such as the U.K. and France) could agree on a course of action. Sadly, this rarely happened Effects of the Absence of Major Powers

    22. Collected security assumes all nations are equally prepared to act in defense of the principle that aggression is wrong and must be resisted • It assumes that all nations will see each challenge to the peace in exactly the same light and be willing regardless of the cost or how their own interests will be affected, to defended the principle Collective Security Principles

    23. After realizing that Germany was on the verge of collapse, Gustav Stresemann announced that Germany would fully comply with her obligations under the Treaty of Versailles • Wilson did not want anything to do with the Peacemaking nonsense and came up with his 14 points which is what started the League of Nations. Once the League was established though, he wanted nothing to do with it. Early Attempts at Peacemaking

    24. The debt placed on Germany as part of the Versailles treaty led to Ruhr crisis • When Germany was not able to pay France their reparations France occupied the Ruhr valley • The British tried to meet with the French to resolve the debt issue as a means of alleviating tensions over reparations and assisting in economic recovery • They failed and this lead to a souring relationship between the British and French • The U.S. Refused to cancel the debts of its Allies thus weakening of their recovery and forcing them to continue to demand reparations from Germany • JM Keynes condemned the economic terms of the treaty. He said that it would hurt all of Europe The Ruhr Crisis

    25. Stresemann proposed to the Allies is that Germany could agree with France and Belgium • The Locarno treaty was signed it in October of 1925 • Germany joined the League of Nations • Germany adjusted their eastern borders • The treaty led to Germany accepting boundaries and renouncing violence • Peace scene for a few years after • Germany gained a permanent seats in the League council • Germany became an independent state • Locarno seem to stop all bad feelings after world war one • Everyone thought Germany was content, Germany still wanted to expand • If U.S. Stopped paying Germany that was going to Britain and France good feelings may go away Locarno

    26. Global trading came to stand still • Nations became isolated • Depression produced aggressive states • Brought Hitler to power its • Hitler tried to dismantle Versailles and all other peace treaties • Hitler’s solution made war inevitable • Destroyed optimistic peace • Collective security was seen as hollow and pointless • Britain and France greatly affected Impact of the Great Depression

    27. Nobody it was close enough to East Asia to get involved • It’s without armed forces the League was ineffective • Japan pulled from the League of Nations and kept Manchukuo • U.S. policy of isolationism Failure of Collective Security

    28. Japan it was suffering because of lack of exports • China involved in civil war with communist Mao-Zedong and Chiang Kai Scheck • Japan invaded Manchuria causing Manchukuo to be its own country • This challenged the League of Nations and collective security • China appealed to League for support against Japan Manchuria