New Transportation for the 20th Century
Transportation improvements allowed Louisiana to progress agriculturally and industrially What do you think are the reasons for this progress?
Railroads • Roads were profitable until the railroad came along • New towns were created as the railroad expanded • Most railroad construction took place between 1880 and 1910 • In the 1890s the Kansas City Southern Railroad opened up western Louisiana • James Gould built a line that ran from New Orleans to Marshall, TX • By 1910 more than 5000 miles of railroad tracks crossed LA (see page 430 in your textbook)
Jetties • The Mississippi River was still a valuable transportation route despite the coming of the railroad • The shallow mouth of the Mississippi made ship navigation difficult • James Eads was responsible for successfully deepening the mouth of the Mississippi River with his jetty system • Implemented in 1879, it increased the flow of the river by narrowing the channel and thus sweeping away sediment • Shipping to New Orleans increased immediately
Automobiles • By 1916 more than 9000 automobiles motored around Louisiana • Mass production played a large part in the increasing number of automobiles found throughout Louisiana • Henry Ford was responsible for this mass production as he pioneered the manufacture of affordable automobiles • He used the assembly line method to produce his Model T and Model A cars • Ford’s automobiles cost between $300 and $500, making them very affordable; he was able to pay his workers around $1,300 per year • The installment plan also increased spending
Streetcars • At the beginning of the era, New Orleans had horse-drawn streetcars • In 1889 Shreveport began using electric streetcars followed by New Orleans in 1893 • It became known as the St. Charles Streetcar in New Orleans and its still in operation today • The streetcar fare in 1893 was 6 cents
New Conveniences in the Early 1900’s mail service telephones electricity gaslights
Electric Lights • In 1887 New Orleans began using electric lights and by 1900 the entire city was lit by electricity • It was suggested to only use 4 bulbs per household at one time so as not to blow a fuse • The bill per household each month was $1 • Small towns only used electricity for light at night • By 1916 electric lights replaced gaslights in cities and towns • Rural Louisiana did not receive electricity until the late 1930s
Mail Delivery • Mail delivery became more dependable with the development of the railroads • Mail was delivered to homes on the RFD (rural free delivery) routes, no longer requiring that rural Louisianans go to town to pick up their mail • The first mail delivery vehicles were horses and wagons • Montgomery Ward and the Sears catalog deliveries were among the most important
What is progress? The belief that humans could keep improving their society to make it better and better.
The Progressive Movement • Goal = improving the quality of life for all Americans • Urban development led to urban problems • The government was best equipped to handle the problems and challenges of the 20th century
Progressive Reform • Fight poverty and improve the living conditions of citizens • Break up large corporations and regulate business 3. More voter influence in government *These three elements of reform were the responsibility of the government at the local, state, and national level.
Improve living conditions…how? • Reform prisons • Improve working conditions • Outlaw alcohol • Extend voting rights to women
Progressives in Louisiana • More traditional and conservative than the national group • Still implemented some of the national reforms • Working hours for women and children were regulated • Child labor laws were passed • Convict-lease system ended (William W. Heard)
What role? • By the end of the nineteenth century, the citizens of Louisiana recognized the fate of their state was tied to the fate of their country. • They accepted their roles as citizens of the United States.
The Spanish-American War • At the end of the century, Cuban patriots were fighting a guerilla war for independence from Spain • In 1898, the U.S> battleship Maine mysteriously exploded in Havana, Cuba • Congress declared war on Spain and President William McKinley called for volunteers to drive the Spanish from Cuba • A total of about five thousand men from Louisiana served in this war • The second Louisiana Infantry Regiment was among the first American troops to enter Havana • Louisiana lost only one soldier in the Spanish-American War 2. World War I • 1914 - 1918 • Central powers (Germany and Austria-Hungary) vs. Allied powers (France, Great Britain, Russia) • In 1917 German submarines were sinking US passenger ships on the high seas…United States declared war on Germany • Several military camps established in LA • Over 80,000 Louisianans served in the army • “wheat less days” and “meatless days” • Louisianans bought over $200 million worth of war bonds • Allied victory!
Quick Review(hint-you may want to write this down) The Allied Powers in World War I consisted of France, Great Britain, and… (GLE 32) a. China b. Russia c. Turkey d. Poland