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Final Report. Viren Bhanot. Work Done. Rotary compressor – Its working and calculations Small Experiment Line Bypass Heater C alibration Heat Balance Report Accumulator Dry-Out testing Accumulator Cooling Power measurements CMS Pixel Upgrade User’s Manual for Building 158.

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final report

Final Report

Viren Bhanot

work done
Work Done
  • Rotary compressor – Its working and calculations
  • Small Experiment Line
  • Bypass Heater Calibration
  • Heat Balance Report
  • Accumulator Dry-Out testing
  • Accumulator Cooling Power measurements
  • CMS Pixel Upgrade
  • User’s Manual for Building 158
rotary compressor
Rotary Compressor

Sanyo Compressor

  • Model no.: C-C140L5
  • Dedicated for CO2
  • Two-Stage compression
  • Pressure rating of 90 bar (outlet, 2nd stage)
small experiment line
Small Experiment Line
  • 250W Cartridge Heater
  • Swagelok Fittings
  • Concentric Heat Exchanger after Mass Flow Meter
  • Actuators for Metering Valves
heater selection
Heater Selection
  • 250 W heater required
  • Cartridge, insertion heater for direct heating
  • Inlet to heater perpendicular to its length
  • Flow development analysed for selection
    • Hydrodynamic and Thermodynamic flow development
  • Low watt density required
heater selection1
Heater Selection

Correlations Used:

  • Hausen
  • Stephan
  • Shah/London
  • Flow Development
  • Fully Developed
  • Thermodynamically developing, Hydrodynamically developed
  • Simultaneously developing
heater selection2
Heater Selection


  • WatlowFirerod Cartridge Heater
  • Ф-3/8”, Length – 7”
  • Power - 250 W
  • Watt Density – 5 W/cm2
  • 4” No-heat zone
  • Epoxy Seals to protect from moisture
swagelok fittings
Swagelok Fittings
  • Heater mounted on reducer union
  • Inlet through Welding Tee fitting
  • Tube inner dia = 1/2”, heater dia = 3/8”
  • Line between mass flow meter and metering valve in a concentric internal heat exchanger.
  • Whole Assembly Welded Together
  • Electrical Actuator for Swagelok metering valves

Two companies discovered:

  • Hanbayinc. (Canada)
  • Grotec (Germany)
  • Actuator ordered from Hanbay (cost ~ $1500)
bypass heater calibration
Bypass Heater Calibration
  • Bypass Heater (2 kW) performance not satisfactory
    • Virtually no heating at low powers, then sudden overheating at medium-high powers
    • Output power not equal to power requested through PVSS
  • Heater controlled through phase angle controller (inexpensive way of controlling heater)
  • “Span” setting of heater too narrow. Corrected.
bypass heater calibration1
Bypass Heater Calibration
  • Tests performed to measure heater power and compare it against input power (through PVSS)
  • System run in single phase to measure enthalpy using Pressure and Temperature.
  • Power o/p = Enthalpy Change x Massflow Rate
  • Pressure, temperature measured across internal heat exchanger.
  • Output power found to be not equal to input power
bypass heater calibration3
Bypass Heater Calibration
  • Phase Angle Controller chops up the sine-wave signal (4-20 mA) linear with time, instead of linear with output power
  • Mustapha prepared MATLAB and PVSS programs to correctly calculate output power to match input power.
  • New logic incorporated into PVSS by Lukasz. Works perfectly, and has been tested.
heat balance
Heat Balance
  • Heater Calibration tests expanded to give overview of heat balance for entire system.
  • Heat addition/extraction measured to get an idea of system performance
  • Compressor data also included

Parameters measured

  • Preq
  • Qpump
  • Qheater
  • Qin
  • Qcond
  • Qcomp
heat balance3
Heat Balance

Conclusions drawn:

  • Up until 1100W, the readings are reliable.
  • Readings above 1100W are unreliable due to premature boiling of CO2 inside the tubes.
  • Offset between requested power and power measured is due to heat added by the pump and surroundings.
  • Compressor cooling capacity is lower than expected (this data is already 2 months old)
accumulator dry out testing
Accumulator Dry-Out Testing
  • Accumulator heater in thermo-syphon configuration
  • During start-up, accumulator heated for long time
  • At higher vapor pressure, higher vapor density.
  • At higher density, lower convective currents
  • Risk of dry-out, heater melting.
accumulator dry out testing1
Accumulator Dry-Out Testing
  • A parameter called Thermal Resistance used to calculate dry-out thresholds
  • Accumulator heated for long periods with 250, 500, 750, 900 and 1000W power
  • Rthcalculated for all data points, and plotted against accumulator saturation temperature.
  • Combined graph for all readings plotted
accumulator dry out testing3
Accumulator Dry-Out Testing

Conclusions drawn:

  • At 250W Heater Power, dry-out is not witnessed.
  • Higher the heater power, lower the saturation temperature at which dry-out occurs.
  • Some unexplained bumps are observed at higher powers, through sudden, steep rises and falls in the values of Thermal Resistance
accumulator cooling power
Accumulator Cooling Power
  • Tests done to measure cooling power in accumulator
  • It was expected that cooling at 100% valve opening should match heating at 100% heater power (1 kW)
  • This was not the case
  • Some cooling power lost because cooling spiral passes through liquid CO2.
accumulator cooling power1
Accumulator Cooling Power
  • Accumulator cooled and then heated at specific rates. For example, 50% CV1105 valve opening corresponds to 50% heater power, 500W
  • Slopes of cooling and heating measured.
  • Cooling slope observed to be less than heating slope.
  • Since slope unequal, this method not enough to determine cooling power
accumulator cooling power3
Accumulator Cooling Power
  • Rough estimate obtained by plotting Heater’s power versus the value ‘dp/dt’ (change in pressure per unit time)
  • dp/dt values of cooling spiral superimposed on heating graph.
  • This gives rough but useful estimate of cooling capacity.
accumulator cooling power4
Accumulator Cooling Power

Cooling Power Measured:

accumulator cooling power5
Accumulator Cooling Power


  • Cooling power does not correspond to its respective heating power.
  • The maximum cooling power available is only 740W.
  • The cooling power at 25% valve opening is not a quarter of the full cooling power. This is due to the inertia of the fluid.
  • Cooling Power is not completely linear over the entire range.
cms pixel upgrade
CMS Pixel Upgrade
  • CMS Pixel layout being discussed with various iterations proposed.
  • Latest proposal (at that time) was simulated to measure the fluid temperature and pressure drop. Results were compared with Bart’s results (with his global calculator)
  • Joao’s calculator was used in Matlab, and simulations with Friedel and Chisholm correlations.
  • The simulation results were similar to, but not exactly the same as Bart’s own simulations.
user s manual
User’s Manual
  • The eventual aim of project was to prepare User Manual to allow external researchers (Belle, SLAC, IBL) to use the system without distracting Bart, Lukasz or Joao!
  • The manual is about 60 pages long and will hopefully be used by someone in the future.