Research • a process of arriving at -dependable solutions to problems through a planned and systematic collection • analyses, • evaluation, • interpretation and • synthesis of data
Benefits from research • Has shortened distances via speedy transportation and communication • Has improved industrial and agricultural production • Provided man various comforts in life • Has lengthened the life span of man
Benefits from research • Has fostered understanding between and among nations • Can help leader or manager to decide more reliably when solving problems
IDENTIFYING A RESEARCH PROBLEM • Observe things before you say useless. • Sa pangit madami kang makikitang maganda. Sources of a Research Topic
IDENTIFYING A RESEARCH PROBLEM Factors to consider in selecting a topic Sources of a Research Topic • your interest and abilities (level of knowledge and experiences) • availability of materials needed • particular needs of the community • socio-economic significance • time element • safety measures • expenses • generation of new information people places things
Your aim should be… to: • Show why your research needs to be carried out. • 2. How you came to choose certain methodologies or theories to work with. • 3. How your work adds to the research already carried out, etc.
Characteristics of a Good Problem • Clear • Organized • Specific • Well-defined scope • Concise • Measurable
Significance of a Problem • Help answer a problem/need of the people/community/country • Contribute to the generation of new information • Develop or improve an existing process • Contribute to the development of the scientific skills of the researcher
Beauty products(soap,shampoo, hand sanitizer etc.) dermatologists
Food products nutritionist
Pesticides & insecticides
Try to AVOID topics like: Malunggay T Tawa-Tawa
Try to AVOID topics like: Try to AVOID topics like: • Tuba • Water lily
Try to AVOID topics like: Try to AVOID topics like: • Respond of plants in organic and inorganic fertilizers • Mongo seeds • Organic fertilizers
Try only 1 variable xLemon & calamansi as insecticide • Calamansi Insecticide
Remember This: • Concentrate in one plant only before comparing/ combining it with other plants.
TRENDING Topics: • Plants which are good absorbent of heavy metals or radiation E.g.kangkong leaves for lead absorption
TRENDING Topics: • Debate between UPLB students vs. Agusan nutritionist about the accumulation of heavy metals in the brain of fish.
TRENDING Topics: • Flower preservation • Prolonging the shell-life of banana • Dried leaves • Simple but has GREAT economic impact
TRENDING Topics: • Animicrobial property of plant or fruit Eg. Steroid from eggplant A steroid is a type of organic compound that contains a characteristic arrangement of four cycloalkane rings that are joined to each other. Examples of steroids include the dietary fat cholesterol, the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone and the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone.
TRENDING Topics: • Taal- Maliputo • Aquatic microorganisms • Sugarcane baggasse • Chili
TRENDING Topics: • Bricks out of cogon grass • Green algae as a biodiesel
Accept some duplication of Investigatory project unless there will be new variable added.
FORMULATING A RESEARCH PROBLEM Types of Variables Independent variables, IV– factors that cause the change; can be manipulated Dependent variables, DV– observed effects; their values are dependent on theIV Extraneous variables, EV– factors that influence the results of the study; must be controlled or maintained during the investigation
Determine IV and DV • The amount of aspirin used does not have any effect on the storage life of roses • The effect of sugar on the preservation of macapuno
FORMULATING THE HYPOTHESIS Ahypothesisis a tentative answer to the research question; an informed and educated prediction or explanation
FORMULATING THE HYPOTHESIS Types Of Hypothesis Null: states that there is no significant difference between the results of two conditions Alternative: states that there is a significant difference between the results of two conditions being tested Cause and effect: states that if a certain condition (cause) is true, then a supporting observation (effect) occurs.
Research design • Refers to the plan projecting the arrangement or set-up of condition/s under which the study is undertaken for the purpose of facilitating data collection and analysis
Experimental design • Involves manipulation of the independent variable or the assumed cause to be able to measure the dependent variable or the effect.
RESEARCH DESIGN Experimental Design Diagram Problem: Response of Okra to Horse Manure and Urea: A Comparative Study Hypothesis: There is no significant difference between the effects of horse manure and urea on the following growth variables : average height,…, etc.
Scope and limitation • Scopemeans the extent of the study while the limitations are its perceived weaknesses which are beyond control of the researcher
Scope and Delimitation of the Study - limits the study in terms of study area, problem, time frame as well as design, instruments etc.
Significance of the study • This section bares the contribution of the study particularly its utilization from general to specific sectors of society • Explain the relevance and usefulness of the study to specific group or individual users of the results
Definition of terms • words or statements are defined according to its use in the research • Do not define them as you pick it up from the dictionary
Review of related literature • Requires going through related studies in printed matter like books, pamphlets, periodicals and documents • Gist of readings • Presents summary of information
Organizing your Review of Related Literature • Categorize your topics that will lead to your research 2. Group together similar studies that have similar aspects to your research 3. Begin with the most recent and then backward 4. If possible include local researches to avoid unintentional duplication
Review of Related Literature This will provide additional knowledge and insights of the research Survey of Literature and Related Studies - includes the purpose, procedures, findings and recommendations of past researches - discusses relevant information, reviews of recent findings and gaps of existing knowledge of the problem - avoids unintentional replication of researches
Tips in Writing the Review of Related Literature • Document accepted facts, concepts and processes upon which the research is based 2. References should correctly be cited and credit be given to authors 3. Describe similarities and differences among research studies as background to your study 4. Include all important information taken from the literature
ALL cited literature was written and published in the past, so use past tense to refer to the findings of these studies Do not use first names when referring to the authors of studies you cite. Use only last names in the body of the manuscript. In the references list, use last names and initials. This approach reduces attention to the gender of the author, thereby attenuating discrimination on irrelevant dimensions.