The Rise of Totalitarian Leaders…. In Eastern Europe, Democracy is failing. WHY???. Little tradition of political democracy Many illiterate peasants Much land dominated by large landowners who feared peasant uprisings Ethnic conflicts. ITALY. Benito Mussolini.
In Eastern Europe, Democracy is failing.WHY??? • Little tradition of political democracy • Many illiterate peasants • Much land dominated by large landowners who feared peasant uprisings • Ethnic conflicts
Benito Mussolini • Leader of National Fascist Party in Italy • Came to power in 1922, with the “March on Rome” (a coup d’etat) • King Victor Emmanuel III made him Prime Minister • Officially shared power w/King • In reality… Mussolini was the fascist dictator
IL DUCE • 1922, started calling himself “Il Duce” • Official title - "His Excellency Benito Mussolini, Head of Government, Duce of Fascism, and Founder of the Empire"
Mussolini’s Rule - Fascism • No Freedom of Speech • Outlawed all political parties EXCEPT fascism • Created OVRA – secret police • Controlled mass media • Fascist Youth groups formed • Gave Catholic Church independent Vatican City • Stressed family as pillar of society • Women foundation of society (homemakers & mothers)
VI Lenin • As leader of Communist Party, established USSR • After WWI peasants began hoarding food (not comm) • This combined with a drought = near disaster • March 1921 Lenin begins New Economic Policy (NEP) • Modified capitalism • Peasants & small business could operated freely • Saved USSR from complete economic disaster
1924 – Lenin Dies • Who will lead the USSR???? • To be voted on by 7 member Politboro… • Power struggle btw Trotsky & Stalin • Old Bolsheviks supported Trotsky • As General Secretary, Stalin controlled regional, district, city & town appointments of communist officials, he was VERY powerful • Used this power to out Old Bolsheviks from Politboro & gain control of USSR
JOSEF STALIN 5 Year Economic Plans Collectivization – no private property Land owned by govt – worked by peasants 1930 – 10M peasant households collectivized 1934 – 26M
THE GREAT PURGE Removal of anyone ‘against’ Stalin 1st targeted Old Bolsheviks Then – army officers, diplomats, union officials, party members, intellectuals… Approx. 8 million arrested Many sent to Siberia Gulag Archipelago
SPANISH CIVIL WAR SP Gen. Francisco Franco led rebellion against Dem govt (1936) Germany – helped Franco (wanted to “test” all of its new weapons & revived air force) USSR – helped SP govt Franco won