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The Multi-object APO Radial-Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS) with the SDSS Telescope . Jian Ge, University of Florida Steering Committee Members: E. Ford, E. Agol, S. Guadi, S. Seager, H. Ford & D. Schneider

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slide1

The Multi-object APO Radial-Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS) with the SDSS Telescope

Jian Ge, University of Florida

Steering Committee Members:E. Ford, E. Agol, S. Guadi, S. Seager, H. Ford & D. Schneider

Other MARVELS team members: D. Lin, S. Ida, T. Beers, J. Valenti, S. Hawley, & J. Johnson

UF Staff and Postdocs: S. Mahadevan, X. Wan, B. Zhao, J. Groot, B. Lee, S. Kane, M.C. Galvez, C. Werner, J. Liu, H. Zhou & Z. Chen

UF Grads: J. van Eyken, P. Guo, S. Fleming, J. Crepp, R. Cohen, & J. Wang

Collaborators: G. Henry, W. Cochran, L. Ramsey, D. Montes, E. Martin, F. Leger, S. Snedden, K. Pan, D. Long, S. Shaklan, T. Wang, Y. Wei & J. Zhou

slide3

W.M. Keck Exoplanet Tracker (Keck ET)

ET fibers

II. Innovative multi-object Doppler dispersed fix-delay interferometer technique

III. Flexibility of SDSS fiber plugging: adding more ET instruments and/or other survey instruments (such as APOGEE and BOSS )

SDSS fibers

Three Key Technical Elements Enabling MARVELS

I. Wide field of view of the SDSS telescope: 7 square degree

schematic layout for an et doppler instrument
Schematic Layout for an ET Doppler Instrument

Fringes

Telescope

Iodine Cell

HET

Fibers

Fiber

Dispersed Fringes

Medium resolution spectrograph R=5000-10,000

Detector

Erskine & Ge (2000), Ge et al. (2002), Ge (2002)

slide6

Observations of HD 209458 Field with Keck ET in Dec. 2006,

59 fringe spectra of MS stars with V = 7.6-12.2

  • ~750 stars are being surveyed at the SDSS telescope since Nov. 06
slide7

~1000 square degree of sky coverage, mainly along Galactic plane

  • ~33 RV measurements over 1.5 years per field

MARVELS Baseline:

  • Simultaneous 120 object high precision RV measurements with two Keck ET interferometric spectrographs in the optical (0.5-0.6 m) with R=8000
  • 10,000 FGK dwarfs and subgiants with V=8-12 & 3,000 G and K giants with V=8-11 in 2008-2014, minimal metallicity and age bias
  • ~10 m/s for a V=11 FGK dwarfs in an hour
  • >200 new planets around FGK dwarfs, ~11 transit planets, ~40 planets around giant stars, ~20 planets around active/young stars
  • Detect > 50% Jupiter mass planets at 1 year orbit
slide10

Artistic impression of ET-1 planet

The first extrasolar planet (ET-1, HD 102195, V=8.1, G8V) detected by Exoplanet Tracker (ET) with KPNO 0.9m Coude (Ge et al. 2006)

K=63.4 m/s, P=4.11 days, Msini=0.49 Msun, e=0.064, a=0.049 AU

slide11

rms =5.3 m/s, photon limiting error =4.1 m/s

  • long term stability = 3.3 m/s over 1 month

KPNO ET Doppler Precision and Long Term Stability

  • rms =2.5 m/s, photon limiting error =1.9 m/s
slide12

Confirmed Known Planets by Keck ET at the SDSS Telescope in 2006-2007

HD 118203, V=8.14, K0

HD 209458, V=7.7, G0V

slide13

Keck ET Doppler Precision and Long Term Stability

Dec. 06– Mar. 07 (70 days)

Sept – Oct 06 (45 days)

  • Photon limiting precision ~ 6 m/s
  • Long term stability ~ 10 m/s over ~2 months
slide15

V=11.39

Two Planet Candidates from the SDSS ET Pilot Survey in November 2006

V=10.59

slide16

The Full-scale MARVELS survey

Six 60-object optical ET for F,G and K stars

Fiber couplers

One 10-object Red ET for M dwarfs

One 15-object optical EXPERT for FGK dwarfs

Sloan focal plane

  • Search ~40,000 nearby bright F, G, K stars (V< 13) over ~1000 square deg of sky
  • Detect all planets with periods < 18 months and identify planet candidates with longer periods
  • Detect >500 planets, >50 transit planets
  • In the Red (0.7-1.0 m), search ~1,200 M dwarfs for ~50 terrestrial like planets including habitable planets
  • In the optical (0.38-0.6 m), detect ~100 super earth mass planets around 1,500 F,G,K dwarfs
slide18

Detection of Earth-like short period planets with MARVELS-EXPERT instrument in optical

  • 2 Earth mass planet, 2.2 day period around a solar type star, K= 1m/s
  • = 1m/s, 60 measurements, clear detection with 0.1% FAP
slide19

Holy grail region for red ET survey!

Red RV

Red Multi-object ET Survey of M Dwarfs with 0.2-0.5 solar mass

  • ~5 m/s for M0V-M5V dwarfs with I =10 in an hour
  • ~7-20 earth mass habitable planets

10 m/s detection limit

Courtesy of Seager and Valenti

Habitable Zones around M0V-M5V are at 0.1-0.5 AU

slide20

Three Phases for MARVELS

  • Phase I: feasibility study with a prototype, 2004-2005:
  • first light at Sloan in Mar. Apr. 2005, completed
  • Phase II, trial and pilot survey program, 2006-2008:
  • 1st Keck ET instrument with 59 star capability, 470 stars are being surveyed
  • 2nd Keck ET instrument with 60 star capability, August 2007,
  • ~3,000 stars during bright time in 2006-2008, ~ 30 planets

Clone two optical spectrographs (need funds)

Red multi-object ET and EXPERT (need funds)

  • Phase III, the MARVELS survey (2008-2014)
  • The initial survey starts with 120 object capability
  • A goal is to have a total of 360 star capability with six full-scale optical ETs, one Red ET and one EXPERT
  • ~40,000 stars, >500 planets