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Practical II. Handspecimens. Elementary chemical composition. 4000 mineral species with individual mineral names (currently) Within species different polytypes : Quartz: amethyst, citrine, rosequartz , etc.; Beryl: emerald (Cr-rich); aquamarine (Fe-rich)

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practical ii

Practical II

Handspecimens

elementary chemical composition
Elementary chemical composition
  • 4000 mineral species with individual mineral names (currently)
  • Within species different polytypes:
    • Quartz: amethyst, citrine, rosequartz, etc.;
    • Beryl: emerald (Cr-rich); aquamarine (Fe-rich)
  • Common minerals contain abundant elements: O, H, Si, Al, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, K
  • Lithophile, chalcophile, siderophile, halogenophile
classification of minerals
Classification of minerals
  • Genetic:
    • According to principal processes by which minerals are formed
    • Not mineralogical and problematic
  • Geochemical
    • Based on principal chemical elements
    • Irrational: minerals that consist of many elements?
  • Crystal chemical
    • Functional relationship between chemical composition
    • Acceptable
  • Geochemical and crystal chemical
    • Very useful
movie time
Movie-time!!
  • Classification of Minerals
chapter 15

Chapter 15

Mineral identification of hand specimens

stage of crystallisation
Stage of crystallisation

Euhedral

Subhedral

Anhedral

colour streak and luster
Colour, streak and luster

Colour: as directly observed

Streak: colour of powdered sample

Luster: character of light reflected from mineral surface

mechanical properties
Mechanical properties
  • Hardness: 1-10
    • Thumbnail 2
    • Copper penny 3-4
    • Blade of pocket knife 5-6
    • Quartz 6-7
  • Cleavage:
    • Number of cleavage planes
    • Orientation relative to each other
    • Development of cleavage: Perfect, strong, weak
  • Fracture:
    • Irregular break: conchoidal, stepped, splintery
  • Tenacity: malleable, ductile, plastic, brittle, sectile, elastically or inelastically flexible
density and specific gravity
Density and specific gravity

Density: mass of a unit volume of material

Gravity: ratio of the weight of a body and the weight of an equal volume of water (dimensionless)

movie time1
Movie-time!!

Identification of minerals