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Critical Writing. Discuss two manipulator parasites from the talk. Specifically, how did the parasite manipulate its host and why? Artemia (brine shrimp)/tapeworm Cricket/Gordian worm Catapillar/parasitic wasp Snail/trematodes Cockroach/cockroach wasp Toxoplasm /rat.

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Critical Writing


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    1. Critical Writing Discuss two manipulator parasites from the talk. Specifically, how did the parasite manipulate its host and why? Artemia (brine shrimp)/tapeworm Cricket/Gordian worm Catapillar/parasitic wasp Snail/trematodes Cockroach/cockroach wasp Toxoplasm/rat

    2. Critical Writing from the “Moose is Loose” clicker case In paragraph format, create your own food web consisting of 6 to 9 organisms. Be sure to include producers, and primary and secondary consumers. From here, focus on one particular species in that food web. Create a non-feeding relationship between your species of choice and another organism from your list. Describe what possible disruptions in top-down control of productivity could adversely affect your species?

    3. Critical Writing Human Population (A DAY ONLY) According to Han Rosling from TED TALK, the world population is expected to reach 9 billion by 2050. The US population is currently at 313 million and close to zero population growth. Explain in detail ( not list), 3 ways this global increase in population will affect your life in the United States? (and yes, your life will be affected).

    4. Critical writing from Your Inner Fish. Discuss in detail the scientists and lab techniques used to uncover the DNA recipe for constructing the human hand. This essential set of instructions were passed down from fish like Tiktaalik and shared today with a surprising number of other animals, from chickens to chimpanzees.

    5. Critical Writing: Read the following passage about little brown bats (Myotislucifugus). Why should we be concerned about the unusually high mortality rate of this species? Explain in detail, how technology is being used to monitor the bat populations and solve the mystery regarding White Nose Syndrome (Geomycesdestructans). (see next 3 slides)

    6. White Nose Syndrome (WNS) was first discovered in 4 caves in New York state in 2006 / 2007 and had now spread to many more states and sites in the eastern U.S. and Canada. The little brown bat is most affected but IUCN-endangered Indiana bats have also been killed in large numbers. Mortality rates reach 100% in some caves (Blehert et al. 2008 Science) and best estimates suggest that more than a million bats in the eastern United States have already died making this perhaps the most rapid decline of any wildlife species in history. WNS is named for the cold-loving white fungus which grows on and in the skin of the face and wings of the bats. However, starvation during hibernation appears to be the cause of death as affected bats are clearly emaciated (Blehartet al. 2008 Science). Little is known about WNS but it appears to be spreading and it represents a potentially enormous threat to North American bat populations and ecosystems in general. Given the high mortality rates observed to date, the affected region may have already lost more than 1000 tons of annual insect biomass consumption. (see next slide)

    7. Data are lacking to address two key questions that are potentially important for understanding WNS: 1) what are the normal patterns of body temperature and metabolic rate for little brown bats during hibernation and 2) how far do little brown bats travel between winter and summer? If WNS interferes with normal hibernation patterns it is critical that we learn what normal hibernation patterns look like for different populations across the very large range of little brown bats. A lack of knowledge about winter-summer movements is a major stumbling block for understanding the potential spread of WNS and our prospects for managing and controlling it. Some data from banding studies exist but our PIT tag work for the Manitoba Bat Blitz has the potential to provide a clearer picture. (See next slide)

    8. Lab Resources Thanks to grants from CFI, NSERC and other agencies we have several four or eight channel Sable Systems respirometry systems for measuring metabolic rates and evaporative water loss of animals and Lotek SRX-400 Datalogging Telemetry Receivers with antenna switching capability for “physiological telemetry” to remotely log body temperatures, and for traditional telemetry studies. We use a Pettersson D500x ultrasound recording unit or D240x time expansion bat detectors with Asus EeePCs or iRiver recorders for remote recording of echolocation calls of bats in the field. We mark bats with passive transponders (PIT tags) and have a range of equipment for recording PIT tag data from free-ranging animals. The lab is equipped with nets and traps for capturing bats and small mammals and instruments for measuring morphological traits, sampling blood and tissue and hand-held telemetry receivers for routine radiotracking. The “Batmobile”, our 4WD gas-electric hybrid field vehicle and cargo trailer gets us from place to place in the field.