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Bioenergetics. I . Introduction. A. Definition. B. History. 1. Count Rumford (1798) work versus heat studies, cannon boring. 2. Sadi Carnot (1824) work depends on the temperature, cyclic engine. 3. James Joule (1842) established equivalence of work and heat (Joule).

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Bioenergetics

I. Introduction

A. Definition

B. History

1. Count Rumford (1798) work versus heat studies, cannon boring

2. Sadi Carnot (1824) work depends on the temperature, cyclic engine

3. James Joule (1842) established equivalence of work and heat (Joule)

4. Rudolph Classius (1850) states the first two laws of thermodynamics

5. J. Gibbs (1878) proposed free energy or system energy to perform work when To and pressure are uniform throughout a system called Free Energy

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6. Ludwig Boltzman late 19th century, proposed energy existed as packets based on particles he called atoms, started fields of thermodynamics and kinetics. Committed suicide in 1906 because no one believed him.

7. Albert Einstein late 1905 atoms held the energy (basis for almost all energy equations)

8. Ernest Rutherford (1910) and Neils Bohr (1912) would design the shape and structure of an atom.

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C. Energy Forms

1. Potential Energy = Stored Energy

2. Kinetic Energy = Motion Energy

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D. Energy Laws

1. Law of Conservation, Constancy, or Quantity of Energy

Figure 5.10

2. Law of Order, Organization, or Quality of Energy

Figure 5.10

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E. Energy Reactions

1. Spontaneous Reactions (Predicting reaction spontaneity = Free Energy  (ΔG)

ΔG = free energy

ΔH = enthalpy

ΔG = ΔH - TΔS

ΔS = entropy

T = absolute temperature

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2. Exergonic reactions = release of free energy

3. Endergonic reactions = absorbs free energy

Figure 5.11A & B

4. Oxidation/Reduction reactions

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F. ATP and Energy Coupling

1. ATP Structure

2. ATP Cycling

Figure 8.8

Figure 5.12A

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3. ATP Coupling

Figure 5.12B

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II. Enzymes

A. Definition

B. History

1. Pasteur vs. Leibig (1890’s) Fermentation needs intact cells or not?

2. Buchner late 1890’s Yeast yield EtOH and CO2 from catalyst in cells (yeast) coined the term “enzyme”

3. Sumner (1926) isolated crystalline protein called urease

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C. Function

1. Overview

2. How?

Page 93

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3. Mechanism

Page 93

Figure 5.14