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The Nature of Matter. The chemistry of life. The Nature of Matter. Life depends on chemistry Living things are made from chemical compounds The study of chemistry begins with the basic unit of matter, the atom. Atoms. From the Greek word atomos , which means “unable to be cut”

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The chemistry of life

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the nature of matter1
The Nature of Matter
  • Life depends on chemistry
  • Living things are made from chemical compounds
  • The study of chemistry begins with the basic unit of matter, the atom
  • From the Greek word atomos, which means “unable to be cut”
  • Atoms are incredibly small
    • Place side by side, 100million atoms would make a row only about 1 centimeter long

An atom contains subatomic particles that are even smaller

subatomic particles
Subatomic Particles
  • The subatomic particles that makes up atoms are protons, neutrons, and electrons
  • Protons are positively charged
  • Neutrons carry no charge
  • Electron is negatively charged
  • Atoms are electrically neutral because they have equal numbers of protons and electrons
  • A chemical element is a pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom
  • More than 100 elements are known, but only about two dozen are commonly found in living organisms
  • Elements are represented by a one- or two letter symbol
  • The Periodic Table shows the elements
chemical compounds
Chemical Compounds
  • In nature, more elements are found combined with other elements in compounds
  • A chemical compound is a substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions
  • The atoms in compounds are held together by chemical bonds
chemical bonds
Chemical Bonds
  • Bond formation involves the electros that surround each atomic nucleus
  • The electrons that are available to form bonds are called valence electrons
types of chemical bonds
Types of Chemical Bonds
  • Ionic bonds
  • Covalent bonds
  • Van deer Waals forces
    • The main types of chemical bonds are ionic bonds and covalent bonds
ionic bonds
Ionic bonds
  • An ionic bond is formed when or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
covalent bonds
Covalent Bonds
  • A covalent bond forms when electrons are shared between atoms (single, double, and triple bonds)
    • The structure that result when atoms are joined together by covalent bonds is called a molecule
  • The molecule is the smallest unit of most compounds.
  • Many of the molecules in living cells are so large that they are known as macromolecules
  • They are formed by a process in which smaller molecules are put together (polymerization)
    • Monomers join together to form polymers
types of macromolecules
Types of Macromolecules
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Nucleic acids
  • Proteins
  • Living things use carbohydrates as their main source of energy.
    • Sugars
      • Starch
      • glucose
  • Lipids can be used to store energy
  • Some lipids are important parts of biological membranes.
    • Fat
    • Olive oil
nucleic acid
Nucleic Acid
  • Nucleic acids store and transmit heredity, or genetic information
    • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
    • RNA (Ribonucleic acid)
  • Some proteins control the rate of chemical reactions and regulate cell process
  • Some are used to form bones and muscles
  • Others transport substances into and out of cells or help fight disease.
    • Enzymes
chemical reactions
Chemical reactions
  • chemical reaction is a process that changes, or transforms, one set of chemicals into another.
  • Chemical reactions always involve changes in the chemical bonds that join atoms in compounds