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NE. Approaching. end of jet. Part of. Disk. Nucleus. Receding. SW. end of jet. Opticon Board Meeting 10-11 Nov 2008, Porto. Astrophotonics promise. This talk focusses on PROMISE not PROGRAMMATICS. Jeremy Allington-Smith AstroPhotonica Europa coordinator

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slide1

NE

Approaching

end of jet

Part of

Disk

Nucleus

Receding

SW

end of jet

Opticon Board Meeting 10-11 Nov 2008, Porto

Astrophotonics promise

This talk focusses on PROMISE

not PROGRAMMATICS

Jeremy Allington-Smith

AstroPhotonica Europa coordinator

Centre for Advanced Instrumentation

Durham University

acknowledgements
Acknowledgements

Pierre Kern*(LAOGrenoble)

Joss Bland-Hawthorn*(U. Sydney; AAO)

Martin Roth*(AIP)

Robert Thomson (Heriot Watt U)

Tim Birks(U. Bath)

Jason Corbett(CfAI, Durham U+)

... and their associates

... and all our partners inAstroPhotonica Europa

(includes Porto, ESO, MPIA…..)

* Opticon-FP7 co-investigators, + now at Malvern Instruments

what is it
What is it?

Astrophotonics= Astronomy + Photonics

The application of photonic principles and devices to astronomy

Astrophotonica Europa=a European partnership to achieve this goal

why we need it
Why we need it
  • Main themes for astronomy
    • Equation of state of the universe
    • Galactic archaelogy
    • Extrasolar planets; AGN studies

→ large aperture and high spatial resolution → ELTs

→ very high spatial resolution → LBOIRI

AstroPhotonics can bring major benefits to:

    • Highly-multiplexed spectroscopy – a critical technique -
    • Specific technical problems for ELTs to be solved
    • Improved utility of long-baseline opt/IR interferometry
    • Pre-dispersion removal of telluric background
slide5

What actually is photonics?

L

The behaviour of a medium depends not only on the type of its constituent atoms but also on the geometrical layout of the atomic oscillators

  • Examples:
  • Photonic crystal fibres (1-D)
  • Slab waveguides (2-D; VPHg a very simple example)
  • Waveguide arrays (3-D)
photonics in 1d pcfs
Photonics in 1D: PCFs

Photonic band-gap

Index guidance

Reflection of light from medium of index lower than that of the cladding

Reflection of light from medium of index higher than that of cladding

applications

Applications

PCF capabilities

Long-baseline interferometry

OH suppression

Highly-multiplexed spectroscopy

Miniaturisation for ELTs

new fibre technology
New fibre technology
  • Extended wavelength range for PCFs:
    • Endlessly single mode (interferometry)
    • New materials and construction for e.g. infrared
  • Fibres designed for multiplexing
    • Multicore + “nano-lens” arrays = micro IFUs
  • Telluric background rejection
    • Suppression of airglow forest
  • Etendue conservation via single modes ?
    • No Focal ratio degradation
    • Large coupling interface (mode area; LMA)

~10 recent papers by AAO & Durham

interferometry long baseline opt ir
Interferometry (long-baseline opt/IR)

Brief summary - interface with interferometry and fast detectors activities in OPTICON

  • Long heritage in interferometry: FLUOR, OHANA, IONIC
  • Specific photonic solutions for critical functions:
    • beam combination
    • light transport (PCF junctions/switches)
  • Integrated Optics to simplify complexity of multilayer systems via e.g….
  • On-chip integration - e.g. novel fringe tracker via Lipmann interfometrySingle photon detectors (Grenoble Quantum Dots (St Andrews, ATC)
oh suppression
OH suppression

Bland-Hawthorn et al. (2004)*; Leon-Saval et al, (2005)**

NIR airglow emission

 artefacts & reduced SNR

Extended wings due to disperser

 Remove before dispersion

Currently limited by number of modes coupled from telescope

 = Numerical aperture

d = fibre core diameter

(40-100µm)

 10 < M <100

*OpEx, 12, 5902 ** Opt. Lett. 30 2545

multiplexed spectroscopy

Datacube

y

MOS

x

Multiplexed spectroscopy
  • Must dilutely sample field due to detector cost
  • Need arbitrary choice of spaxels contiguous or not
  • MOS+IFS = Diverse Field Spectroscopy
slide12

Observation

control

Telescope focus

Selected regions

Primary feed

Switcher

Spectrograph feed

Recorded spectra

Spectrographs

Spectrograph slit

Celestial Selector

For DFS

Murray & Allington-Smith (in prep)

Allington-Smith, Murray & Padgett (in prep)

  • Integrated optics
  • Tiny replicated spectrometers
  • Novel fibres (PCFs)
miniaturising instruments

Reduce volume by factor 50?

R. Contentet al. (Durham)

Miniaturising instruments?

Fore-optics &

pickoff mirrors

  • Gigantic integral field unit for ELT (GSMT)
  • 3'x3' @0.1" IFU
  • Beam size ~250mm
  • R = 2000

Dimensions:

6 x 7 x 8m

Thomson, Kar & Allington-Smith (2008)

photonic spectrograph

One miniature integrated

photonic spectrograph per fibre

Integrated Photonic spectrograph

Integrated Photonic spectrograph

Integrated Photonic spectrograph

Integrated Photonic spectrograph

Integrated Photonic spectrograph

Data

Multi-mono

mode

transition

Multi-mono

mode

transition

Multi-mono

mode

transition

Multi-mono

mode

transition

Multi-mono

mode

transition

Arrayed

Waveguide

Grating

Arrayed

Waveguide

Grating

Arrayed

Waveguide

Grating

Photonic

Disperser

(AWG,Lipmann)

Arrayed

Waveguide

Grating

Linear

Detector

array

Linear

Detector

array

Linear

Detector

array

Linear

Detector

array

Linear

Detector

array

Multimode

fibres

Demonstrated

but not in

integrated device

Devices exist but not integrated to detector

Exists but not

integrated in

spectrograph

Photonic spectrograph

Telescope

focus

Massively

multiplexed

Sliced/IFU

photonic disperser awg
Photonic disperser: AWG

Arrayed Waveguide Gratings avoid geometrical limits of SL gratings using phased fibre arrays

  • Potential size advantage of 5-10 in linear size;  cost factor 30-1000!(Bland-Hawthorn et al., AAO)
photonic disperser swifts
Photonic disperser: “SWIFTS”

LeCoarer et al. Nature Photonics 1, 473 (2007)

  • Detect evanescent field in waveguide
  • Detectors?
    • SSPD
    • Quantum dots
enabling tchnology uli
Enabling tchnology: ULI
  • OHS by multi-singlemode transitionsand photonic phased array dispersers need 3D waveguide networks
  • Thomson, Kar & Allington-Smith(OpEx submitted) propose Ultrafast laser inscription(Thomson et al. OpEx 15, 11691 (2007).
  • Highly focussed, steerable laser changes refractive index in suitable materials when power density exceeds a threshold near focus
uli 3d waveguides
ULI 3D waveguides
  • OHS: Replace complicated PCF transition with mass-producible units
  • Photonic disperser: maximise phase shift via spiral geometry
organisation

Organisation

Exploit recent advances in Photonics by telecommunications industry

Build on Europe’s innovation heritage (e.g IFS)

Get together with your friends

→ AstroPhotonica Europapartnership

a stro p hotonica e uropa
AstroPhotonica Europa

A European research partnership

Partnership UK/France/Germany/Netherlands/Spain/Portugal

  • Astronomy Institutes
  • Photonics institutes
  • Foundries (detailed design and prototyping)

Funding

  • EU via OPTICON (FP7 support)
  • National and regional funding (e.g. InnoFspec, Potsdam)
  • In-kind contributions of effort and facilities

Activities

  • Workshops & Networking
  • Research & assessment

Synergies

  • Regional optics technology networks & Industry
a stro p hotonica e uropa21
AstroPhotonica Europa

A European research partnership

a stro p hotonica e uropa22
AstroPhotonica Europa

A European research partnership

Further information

Contact co-ordinator

j.r.allington-smith@durham.ac.uk

http://star-www.dur.ac.uk/~jra/astrophotonica.html

conclusions
Conclusions
  • To understand the origins of the cosmos and of ourselves astronomers needs new technology
  • Exploitation of photonic principles and devices already developed will help us do this
  • Without it, instrumentation for the next generation of telescopes may run into major problems
  • Find out more!