FdA Business and Management Introduction to Management Group/Team Work & Presentations
At the end of this session you will be able to: Why Group Work Group Sizes Group DynamicsProvide a definition of teamwork Discuss the nature and importance of team work Provide at least 4 examples of team types Describe team dynamics Explain the qualities needed to effectively work together in teams Outline the social skills that can help develop a good team Describe ways in which managers can promoteteam building & team identity Learning Outcomes
‘Six Management Skills’ • Leading People • Managing Change • Meeting Customer Needs • Managing Information and Knowledge • Managing Activities and Resources • Managing Yourself
Assignment 1 Task - “This assessment task requires you to create and deliver a 15 minute group presentation, which will be centred on the information outputs of the 2011 UK Census*. To complete this task, you will be expected to use a range of authoritative sources, to underpin a discussion of the key information that the Census can provide to an identified UK based organisation ..............” Planning a Presentation
Next slide stat • On average a manager will spend 50% of their working days in one group or another, senior managers 80% • See Charles Handy – Understanding organisations (1976)
Why Groups/Teams • Working in groups and teams has become a significant feature of North American and European organizational life. • Research consistently and persuasively demonstrates that individual followers act differently in a work group than they do when working independently. • Understanding the nature and dynamics of groups is an important aspect of understanding management
So what is team work?Unravel the definition • Teamwork is the co-operative effort by a group of people to achieve a common goal
What sorts of teams are there? • Organisational teams – often a ‘top management team’, bound together because it contributes to overall objectives • Work teams - self-contained and ‘permanent’, delivering outputs • Project teams - brought together to complete a task. Once the task is complete, they disband • Ad hoc teams - set up to deal with a problem. They are short-lived and operate as a task force (Kaizan)
Distinguishing Work Groups • Formal Work Group • Work groups or teams created by organizational leaders to permit collective action on assigned organizational tasks. • Informal Work Group • Groups of employees, not established by leaders, that emerge from the social interaction of followers; they act to fulfill social needs of their members for affiliation and supportive relationships.
Groups - ask this then onto next Why can a team be more effective at a task than a single person?
Group Effectiveness • Performance Enhancement • Making use of the synergy from everyone in a group producing more or better output than working separately. • Bounce ideas off one another. • Correct each other’s errors. • Bring more new ideas to bear on problems • Accomplish projects beyond the scope of individuals
Group Effectiveness • Innovation / Ideas • Individuals rarely possess the wide variety of skills needed for successful innovation. • Team members can uncover each other’s flaws and balance each other’s strengths and weaknesses
Group Effectiveness • Groups and Teams as Motivators • Members of groups are often better motivated and satisfied than individuals. • Group members are more motivated and satisfied than if they were working alone. • Group members working as a team can see the effect of their contribution to achieving the goals. • Provide needed social interaction and help cope with stress.
What are: Team Dynamics? -Team • a group organised to work together • the co-operative effort by a group of people to achieve a common goal • unseen forces that operate in a team between different people or groups • Utilisation and coordination of resources such as capital, materials, and labour to achieve defined objectives with maximum efficiency -Teamwork -Team Dynamics -Management can strongly influence how a team reacts, behaves or performs, and the effects of team dynamics are often very complex!
Definition: Team/Group Dynamics 1. Interaction of complex intra- and inter-personal forces operating in a group which determine its character, development, and long-term survival. 2. Field of study concerned with determination of laws underlying group behaviour
A) Firstly, you are required to perform a short literature review of Group Development, you must include an overview of the area of study: what has already been said on the topic; who the key writers are; what the prevailing theories and hypotheses are; what questions are being asked; and what methodologies are appropriate and useful. Assignment part 2
Group Size • Throughout this course you will be guided upon group sizes ranging from 2 to 5. • In real life the group size is guided by the task and the availability of resources. • The size of groups influences relationships and communication
Lect notes next slide Ask yourselves which roles need playing and when; this is just a sample of roles; you saw other samples in our exercise and also in the visuals above. Try to play to your own strengths and identify others who can plug in for your weaknesses. No one can easily play all roles; that’s why we have teams. Be realistic. What are your strengths? Your weaknesses? This helps you to seek out balancing people in your work teams.
People Play “Roles” in Teams • Innovator—generate ideas and concepts; often impractical but stimulating • Worker—practical; buckles down to get the job done but may lack vision • Monitor/evaluator—analyzes ideas and feasibility, can process complex data but may dominate too much with practicalities • Resource investigator—explores resources and ideas outside the group; may overextend and increase complexity but improves external contacts • Completer—concerned about keeping on schedule and completing details; often anxious but controlled and will work hard to meet goals • Free rider—see if others will pick up the slack
Bruce Wayne Tuckman Just skip through – do in seminar if asked
The Stages of Group Development Adapted from: Tuckman, B. (1965) Developmental Sequence in Small Groups. Psychological Bulletin, 63, 384-399. Tuckman, B. & Jensen, M. (1977) Stages of Small Group Development. Group and Organizational Studies, 2, 419-427.
Stage One: Forming • Definition: Stage 1 teams are generally new teams that are learning how to work together • Characteristics of stage 1 teams: Members tend to be tentative and polite and to have little conflict • Critical skills and activities: Stage 1 teams need toidentify their purpose, develop group norms, identify group processes, define roles, build relationships and trust • Role of facilitator/leader: Stage 1 teams usually need a strong leader who can help the team go through its forming activities
2.Storming • Definition: Stage 2 teams have moved past the early forming stages and are now encountering some disagreements and/or conflict. This is natural, but teams need to find effective ways to handle conflict before they can move on to stage 3. • Group characteristics: Members ofstage 2 teams tend to exhibit increased conflict, less conformity and “jockeying” for power. • Critical skills and activities: Stage 2 teams need to learn how to resolve conflict; clarify their roles, power, and structure; and build consensus through re-visiting purpose. • Role of leader(s): Stage 2 teams need leaders and other team members who are willing to identify issues and resolve conflict.
3.Norming • Definition: Stage 3 teams have successfully moved out of the storming stage and are ready to move to a higher level of communication and problem-solving. • Group characteristics: Members of stage3 teams demonstrate animproved ability to complete tasks, solve problems, resolve conflict. • Critical skills and activities: Stage 3 teams need to learn to engage in more sophisticated problem-solving and decision-making, continue the use of effective strategies for conflict resolution and take greater levels of responsibility for their roles • Role of leader(s): In stage 3, leaders become less directive, team members feel empowered, and multiple leaders emerge
4. Performing • Definition: Stage 4 teams are at the highest level of performance and can process their strengths and weaknesses while accomplishing their goals. • Group characteristics: In stage 4, the team takes a flexible approach to roles and structures depending on the task at hand. The team is able to evaluate its effectiveness and views conflict is viewed as an opportunity. Stage 4 teams tend to be energetic, creative, and fun! • Critical skills and activities: Stage 4 teamsneed to holdhigh expectations for their performance. They often use sub-groups as well as the large group for decision-making and task completion. Teams also recognize the need to ensure that all members are in agreement with the role and purpose of sub-groups. • Role of Leader: In a stage 4 team, it’s often difficult to identify the leader, because everyone is sharing in leadership.
The final stage, Adjourning, involves the termination of task behaviors and disengagement from relationships or simply put the process of "unforming" the group, that is, letting go of the group structure and moving on. This is also an opportunity to review the team process and learn and reflect for the future. (Tuckman added a 5th stage 10 years later) Stage 5: Adjourning
What do teams that are working well have? • an agreed purpose • shared values • clarity about individual roles and where they fit in • mutual respect for each other and loyalty to the team • an acknowledged way of processes for working together • a mix of different qualities and skills • shared praise for success and responsibility for problems See: inspiringlearningforall.gov.uk
What do teams that are working well have? • a willingness to address differences and resolve conflicts rather than bury them • collective and personal commitment to the team • trust and confidence to overcome obstacles • the support of senior managers • a belief that good team work will make a significant contribution • devolved authority to teams • scope for teams to manage themselves See: inspiringlearningforall.gov.uk
Those likely to work well in teams are people who: Work constructively with others and have a willingness to grow and develop within the team. Preferably, team members will be selected who are able to: • commit to a shared goal • listen and respond to others in an objective and productive way • take on different roles in the group in order to accomplish shared ends • be open and honest with their ideas, concerns and values • avoid carrying hidden agendas into team meetings
Those unlikely to work well as team members are individuals who: • seek to maintain their position by protecting their experience • prefer to work alone and unaided • are unwilling to: • discuss their assumptions • negotiate • options • explain solutions.
Social Skills • Listening? • Questioning? • Persuading? • Respecting? • Helping? • Sharing? • Participating?
Promoting teambuilding & identity • Encourage regular contact among team members • Co-locate team members and team leader, in an open plan office • Put a representative into each others' offices to co-ordinate and resolve problems • Hold team-building lunches, ‘awayday’ workshops or social events • Arrange individual and/or group visits to each others' workplace
Important • Many businesses these days place an importance on teamwork. Teamwork involves people working together and cooperating in order to get tasks done and to help a business grow and develop. • Being a team player is now an important requirement in many person specifications in job applications.
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