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The human diet as a source of contaminants Maaike Bilau – Ghent University Department of Public Health 15 th decembe PowerPoint Presentation
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The human diet as a source of contaminants Maaike Bilau – Ghent University Department of Public Health 15 th december 2006. What has diet to do with environment and health ?. Diet = source of nutrients macronutrients: carbohydrates, proteins, fats

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slide1
The human diet

as a source of contaminants

Maaike Bilau – Ghent University

Department of Public Health

15th december 2006

what has diet to do with environment and health
What has diet to do with environment and health?
  • Diet = source of nutrients
    • macronutrients: carbohydrates, proteins, fats
    • micronutrients: minerals, vitamins
  • Diet = carrier of contaminants
    • fat-soluble contaminants
    • heavy metals
    • pesticides
methodology

Methodology

Used Questionnaires:

- fruit & vegetable questionnaire

- “dioxin”questionnaire

dioxin questionnaire semi quantitative ffq 1
Dioxin Questionnaire: semi-quantitative FFQ (1)
  • Structure : based on several eating occasions
    • bread meal: cheese, meat, fish, eggs, spread, mayo, …
    • hot meal: fish, meat, baking/frying fat, sauce …
    • snacks: pitta, pizza, meat, cheese, …
    • rest group: milk(products), candy, cookies, …
  • in order to estimate
    • total fat intake
    • origin of fat
    • intake of fat-soluble contaminants
results

Results

Can the diet (partly) explain some differences in exposure?

results7
Results
  • Intake of food items by 3 Flemish subpopulations
    • adolescents (age: 14 – 15 y)
    • mothers (age: 18 – 40 y)
    • adults (age: 50 – 65 y)
  • Concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in the food chain
  • Estimated dietary intake of dioxin-like compounds
    • comparison with the TDI
    • comparison with a Dutch population + the past
    • comparison with serum levels
    • main contributors in the diet
results8
Results
  • Intake of food items by 3 Flemish subpopulations
    • adolescents (age: 14 – 15 y)
    • mothers (age: 18 – 40 y)
    • adults (age: 50 – 65 y)
  • Concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in the food chain
  • Estimated dietary intake of dioxin-like compounds
    • comparison with the TDI
    • comparison with a Dutch population + the past
    • comparison with serum levels
    • main contributors in the diet
slide9

adolescents

mothers

adults

Consumption (g/day)

of fish and seafood

Consumption (g/day) of meat and meat products

median (P25 – P75)

slide10

adolescents

mothers

adults

Consumption (g/day)

of eggs

Consumption (mL/day)

of milk

median (P25 – P75)

slide11

adolescents

mothers

adults

Consumption (g/day)

of fruit

Consumption (g/day)

of vegetables

median (P25 – P75)

slide12

adolescents

mothers

adults

Consumption (g/day)

of total fat

Weight (kg)

median (P25 – P75)

results13
Results
  • Intake of food items by 3 subpopulations
    • adolescents (age: 14 – 15 y)
    • mothers (age: 18 – 40 y)
    • adults (age: 50 – 65 y)
  • Concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in the food chain
  • Estimated dietary intake of dioxin-like compounds
    • comparison with the TDI
    • comparison with a Dutch population + the past
    • comparison with serum levels
    • main contributors in the diet
slide14

Median dioxin concentrations(pg TEQ/g product) (source: FAVV, Belgium)

=> non-detects : LOQ / 2

results16
Results
  • Intake of food items by 3 subpopulations
    • adolescents (age: 14 – 15 y)
    • mothers (age: 18 – 40 y)
    • adults (age: 50 – 65 y)
  • Concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in the food chain
  • Estimated dietary intake of dioxin-like compounds
    • comparison with the TDI
    • comparison with a Dutch population + the past
    • comparison with serum levels
    • main contributors in the diet
slide17

Differences between regions inestimated intake of dioxin-like substances (pg TEQ/kg bw/d)(Kruskall Wallis test: p < 0.001)

adult men adult women

slide18

TDI = 2 pg/kg bw/day

adolescents

mothers

adults

Cumulative distribution of the estimated intake of dioxin-like substances(pg TEQ/kg bw/d)

slide19

Cumulative distribution of the estimated intake of dioxin-like substances (1999)

Vrijens et al. (2002) Food Add Contam, Vol 19, p. 687-700

slide20

Estimated intake distributions of dioxin-like substances and indicator PCBs in the Dutch population

Baars et al. (2004) Toxicol Letters

slide22

Q4

Q3

Q2

Q1

adolescents

mothers

adults

Cumulative distribution of the estimated intake of “dioxins” (pg TEQ/kg bw/d)

slide23

Estimated intake of DL-substances versus blood levels of sum PCBs

umbilical cord blood

age range 18 - 40 y

in conclusion
In conclusion
  • Estimated intake of food items (and contaminants) shows differences for sex, age, region…
  • Half of the Flemish population exceeds the TDI for dioxin-like substances
  • Main contributors for dioxin-like substances are fish, added fats, dairy products and meat.
  • Some relation between dietary habits and blood levels of fat-soluble contaminants can be seen.
thanks to my co workers at the department of public health
Thanks to my co-workers at the Department of Public Health
  • Mia Bellemans
  • Mieke De Maeyer
  • Christophe Matthys
  • Stefaan De Henauw
  • Jan Willems
  • Guy De Backer

Department of Public Health – Ghent University

www.milieu-en-gezondheid.be