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LHCb Upgrade: Flavour Physics at High Luminosity. Chris Parkes. LHCb - Aims for first phase (~2013) SuperLHCb physics – Probing New Physics Technology - Vertex Trigger, Radiation Level Conclusion- Forward Plan. Thanks to LHCb collaborators, notably:

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lhcb upgrade flavour physics at high luminosity
LHCb Upgrade:Flavour Physics at High Luminosity

Chris Parkes

  • LHCb - Aims for first phase (~2013)
  • SuperLHCb physics – Probing New Physics
  • Technology - Vertex Trigger, Radiation Level
  • Conclusion- Forward Plan

Thanks to LHCb collaborators, notably:

Hans Dijkstra, Jim Libby, Franz Muheim, Guy Wilkinson,

EPS HEP Conference, Manchester, Detector Session, July 21st 2007


250 mrad

10 mrad



Dedicated B System

CP Violation & Rare Decay Experiment

  • Full spectrum of B hadrons:
    • Bs system, All angles, sides of both CKM s
  • Lots of events !

LHCb Construction on Schedule









Flavour Physics Progress

  • Spectacular progress in heavy flavour physics:
    • Baseline measurement ACP (J/y KS)
    • Bs Oscillations Measurement, Charm results
  • Impressive range of additional measurements
  • LHCb Goals - First Phase 10 fb-1
  • First observation of very rare decay
  • Bs mixing phase
  • Unitarity Triangle


at 0.01 rad

γ at few degrees

10 fb-1


+ lattice

  • BDK
  • BsDsK
  • B(s)h+h− exploiting U-spin
lhcb physics programme
LHCb Physics Programme

Limited by Detector

But NOT Limited by LHC

  • Upgrade to extend Physics reach
    • Exploit advances in detector technology
        • Radiation Hard Vertex Detector
        • Displaced Vertex Trigger
    • Better utilise LHC capabilities
  • Timescale, 2015
  • Collect ~100 fb-1 data
  • Modest cost compared with existing accelerator infrastructure
  • Independent of
  • LHC upgrade
  • SLHC not needed
  • But compatible
  • with SLHC phase
upgrade physics programme examples
Upgrade Physics Programme Examples
  • Complementary to ATLAS / CMS direct searches
  • New particles are discovered
    • LHCb measure flavour couplings through loop diagrams
  • No new particles are found
    • LHCb probe NP at multi-TeV energy scale
  • CP Violation
    • Angle  to better than 10
    • Tree Diagram Dominated Decays, <<10 theory
    • Gluonic Penguins


  • Rare Decays
  • Angular Correlations
    • - Not just Afb
  • Charm Physics
  • Mixing studies in D0→hh
  • CPV searches

LHCb 2 fb-1 superimposed

  • Rare decays, eg. D(0)(s)→l+l- [(Xu,s)]

Bs mixing phase

Also measure from

loops - penguin dominated

 = New Physics !

CDF ms

Ligeti et al.


Blanke & Buras


Standard LHCb 1 Year


Little Higgs


Upgrade can achieve 10% measurement of SM

initial phase of lhcb operations
Initial Phase of LHCb Operations

rate of pp interactions

  • Displaced Vertex trigger
    • 2nd level of triggering
  • Multiple Interactions
    • Limit Triggering
  • Defocus LHC beams
  • LHCb L= 2x1032 cm-2s-1
  • Factor 50 below ATLAS/CMS design L
  • Most events have single interaction
  • Data taking starts 2008
  • LHCb UpgradeL= 2x1033 cm-2s-1
    • Cope with 4 int./x-ing
  • SLHC peakL= 8×1034 cm-2s-1
  • Baseline - 40MHz, alternate High, Low I




Select Low I for desired luminosity




Effective 20MHz Crossing rate

lhcb trigger system
LHCb Trigger System
  • Existing 1st Level Trigger 1MHz readout
  • Veto on multiple
  • interactions
  • Existing Trigger based on:
    • High pT Muons
    • Calorimeter Clusters

Current 1st Level Trigger Performance

  • Cope with 4 interactions / beam crossing

Events with muons

– trigger efficient

Events with hadrons

– need improved


Require Displaced

Vertex Trigger

At 1st level

trigger gains 40 mhz readout
Trigger Gains – 40 MHz readout
  • Improve efficiency for
  • hadrons and photons
    • εTrig(B→hadronic) ~ 25-35%
    • εTrig(B→γX) ~ 30-40%
    • εTrig(B→μμX) ~ 60-70%
  • Higher Level Trigger
    • Only limitations
      • CPU
      • Algorithmic Ingenuity
    • (Former) improves with Moore’s Law
radiation hard vertex locator
Radiation Hard Vertex Locator

1 m

Active Silicon only

8mm from LHC beam

  • Upgrade Requires high radiation

tolerance device

>1015 1 MeV neutroneq /cm2

  • Strixels / Pixels
    • n-on-p, MCz, 3D

VELO Module


390 mrad


60 mrad



15 mrad


Pixel layout

Z Beam

lhcb upgrade baseline issues
LHCb Upgrade Baseline & Issues

PWO crystals


  • Trigger in CPU Farm
    • Event building at 40 MHZ, CPU power OK
    • Hadron efficiency ~ factor two improvement
  • Read-out all detector 40MHz
    • Replace all FE Electronics
      • Vertex locator, Silicon Tracker, RICH HPD,
      • Outer Tracker FE, Calorimeter FE boards
  • Radiation Damage
    • Need to replace Velo anyway
    • Inner part of Shashlik Calorimeter
    • Inner part of silicon tracker
    • Remove muon chamber before Calorimeter
  • Occupancy
    • Inner part of outer tracker, 6%25%
      • Increase silicon coverage (faster gas, scintillating fibres)
    • Tracking algorithms for higher occupancy

Inner / Outer Tracker

upgrade summary
Upgrade Summary





  • Major Physics Programme at modest cost
    • Flavour Sector of New Physics
    • s measurement
    • Precision 
  • Critical Technology
    • Radiation Hard Vertex Detector
    • With Displaced Vertex Trigger
  • Compatible with but independent of SLHC



LHCb preparation in good shape

Looking forward to first data

And an even brighter far future


University of Glasgow, Scotland

1st - 5th September 2008

The conference explores the scientific and technical developments of detector systems used in: Astronomy and space science; Astrophysics; Condensed matter studies; Industrial applications; Life sciences; Medical physics; Nuclear Physics, Particle physics and Synchrotron based science.

National Organising


(subject to change)

P.P. Allport, Liverpool

R.L. Bates, Glasgow

A.J. Bird, Southampton

C.R. Cunningham, UK ATC, Edinburgh

G.E. Derbyshire, STFC, RAL

P. Evans, ICR, London

R. Farrow, STFC, Daresbury

W. Faruqi, MRC, Cambridge

M. Grande, Aberystwyth

P.R. Hobson, Brunel

D.P. Langstaff, Aberystwyth

P.J. Nolan, Liverpool

D.J. Parker, Birmingham

P.J. Sellin, Surrey

A. Smith, MSSL, London

R. Speller, UCL, London

T.J. Sumner, IC, London

S. Watts, Manchester