I. New Reading Public (between 1850-1900 more people than ever before learned to read and write) • Advances in primary education a) 1860s on govs assumed b) focused on c) WHY? • Voting • Help poor
Reading material for the mass audience a) b) c) d) e)
II. Science at mid-century • Auguste Comte (The Positive Philosophy) a) argued human thought developed in 3 stages: 1) 2) 3) b) positive laws of social behavior =
Charles Darwin a) Origin of the Species (1859) b)natural selection c) world a realm of d) The Descent of Man (1871) This was the biggest blow to human pride since Copernicus’ “sun centered” theory.
Herbert Spencer – “Social Darwinism” a) human society progresses thru _______ and only the ______ survive. b) coined term c) used theory to justify
Thomas Henry Huxley a) chief opponent of b) struggle in nature held no ethical implications BUT it did show how humans ______________ behave. c) Coined term “agnostic” – without knowledge. Some claims, such as “God” are simply unknowable. d) Man WAS related to
III. Christianity & Church Under Siege Intellectual attack on organized Christian churches based on its: 1. historical credibility 2. scientific accuracy 3. pronounced morality
Historical credibility a) David Friedrich Strauss (Life of Jesus) b) Questioned c) Story of Jesus = d) The Bible, as a book,
Scientific accuracy a) Charles Lyell b) geology studies indicated c) natural causes behind d) Darwin’s theory cast doubt
Pronounced morality a) b) c) d)
Morality of the New Testament God: • Friedrich Nietzsche 1) Christianity as a religion of sheep that 2) War & courage 3) God is
IV. Conflict b/t Church & State • Conflicts a) liberals disliked b) nation-states suspicious of c) education: who should educate? Church or State?
Great Britain a) Ed Act of 1870 b) Ed Act of 1902
France a) b) c) d)
Germany (most extreme ex of church/state conflict) a) Bismarck felt b) 1870-1871 secularized c) “May Laws” d) police e) Kulturkampf (cultural struggle)