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What Motivated the Early Christian Health Missions

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    Slide 1:What Motivated the Early Christian Health Missions? Anatomy of Transformation in India

    Dr.Vinod Shah Presented at CCIH Annual Conference, May 29, 2005

    Factors that affected the health caring Culture.

    Slide 3:Womens disempowered status I

    Pregnant women were not allowed access to high caste practitioners Had to access low caste women traditional dais Dais were illiterate women

    The eldest son of the family pays his last respects to his deceased father before completing the customary rituals and putting torch to the funeral pyre. Erotic sculptures abound & temple prostitution was one of the results Decorated Sati from a Hero-stone (Mahasati Stone)

    Slide 7:TBA

    Donkey ride for pregnant women Massaging/kneading the abdomen Pulling on the cord Cow dung as lubricant Took responsibility for female-feticide and disposal of body

    Slide 8:No caring culture

    Lepers were burnt or buried alive Sick in an epidemic were left to die Female children were sold to buy food during an epidemic Mentally retarded, handicapped were chained to trees Sick had no recourse to help

    Slide 9:Caring not role modeled: Religion sans caring-II

    If I am at prayerI will not leave my prayer and go to help someoneI dont think it is important. If I leave my god and my karma and help someone then my god will get angrymy karma will be lost

    Slide 10:Did god role model healing?

    There is no such example of God role modeling healing

    Slide 11:IMPORTANCE OF THE BODY & THE BODY SOUL DISSOCIATION-III

    THE JUDEO CHRISTIAN CONTEXT The Judeo Christian view would think of the person as one whole The body had intrinsic dignity however deformed or diseased. Even in death, the body needed to be respected

    One of the most difficult austerities a practitioner can attempt is to hold his arm upright in the air for twelve years. It is said that if successfully completed, the practice results in the attainment of supernatural powers Perhaps the most well known austerity is lying on a bed of sharp nails to overcome the limitations of the physical body. Offerings are made to a mediator who is buried up to the neck in sand. He suppresses the sensations of the flesh while attempting to free his mind through meditation.

    Slide 15:High and low trust societies SENSE OF COMMUNITY-IV

    IMPACT ON HEALTH/ ECONOMICS ACCORDING TO FRANCIS FUKUYOMA. Author of book on Trust

    Slide 16:THE ORTHODOX INDIAN CONTEXT

    SOLITARY WORSHIP LOW TRUST SOCIETIES LESS SPONTANEOUS SOCIALIBILITY LESS SOCIAL CAPITAL FAMILY BUSINESS ONLY LESS WEALTH CREATION

    Slide 17:Cont.

    Slide 18:Subjective culture vs Objective Low O/S ratio-V

    We believe that each organ of the body is influenced by some deity. When we deviate from the path of religion the gods leave our side. This is why we fall sick.

    Slide 19:Subjective cultures versus Objective cultures

    Slide 20:Subjective cultures do not support scientific development because

    Interpret reality subjectively Access knowledge subjectively Subjective attitudes in justice and gender

    Slide 21:Indian religions

    In their fundamentals were subjective till Global influences reached them. WASAV (Widely Accepted & Shared Absolute Values) characterize an objective culture and needed for development. Polytheistic idolatry does not produce a WASAV culture.

    Slide 22:Family versus truth-VI

    A father and a husband is like a God

    Slide 23:Country Rank Country 2004 CPI Score* Confidence Range** Surveys Used***

    1 Finland 9,7 9.5 - 9.8 9 2 New Zealand 9,6 9.4 - 9.6 9 3 Denmark 9,5 9.3 - 9.7 10 Iceland 9,5 9.4 - 9.7 8 5 Singapore 9,3 9.2 - 9.4 13 6 Sweden 9,2 9.1 - 9.3 11 7 Switzerland 9,1 8.9 - 9.2 10 8 Norway 8,9 8.6 - 9.1 9 9 Australia 8,8 8.4 - 9.1 15 10 Netherlands 8,7 8.5 - 8.9 10 11 United Kingdom 8,6 8.4 - 8.8 12 12 Canada 8,5 8.1 - 8.9 12 13 Austria 8,4 8.1 - 8.8 10 Luxembourg 8,4 8.0 - 8.9 7 15 Germany 8,2 8.0 - 8.5 11 16 Hong Kong 8,0 7.1 - 8.5 13

    Slide 24:Family values & corruption

    Scale of familism (World Values survey code book 1994 & World Bank statistics) Correlates well with the CPI.(Regression analysis) Tribalism- Africa and India

    Womens transformation Transformation of Ritualistic Hinduism & Jainism Role Modeling of care Sustainability of transformation What did the Christian Medical missionaries do?

    Slide 26:Womens health

    Women medical missionaries ushered in caring for women Women in India did not access hospitals Only home visits allowed and that only by women doctors

    Slide 27:Maharanis locket

    Elizabeth Bielby-1880 Maharani of Panna Locket message to The Queen The women of India Suffer greatly

    SOME POINEER WOMEN MEDICAL MISSIONARIES IN INDIA During the late 19th Century and early part of 20th Century Name of Women Year of Affiliation to Mission Place of work Arrival 1. Clara Swain 1870 American Methodist Mission Bareilly, UP. 2. Sara Seward 1871 American Presbyterian Allahabad, UP Mission 3. Seeyle 1871 Womens Missionary Calcutta, WB Society of America 4. Sarah Norriss 1873 American Board of Medical Women --- 5. Rose Greenfield 1875 Society for female Education in the east, UK Ludhiana, Punjab 6. Elizebeth Bielby 1876 Zenana Bible and Medical Mission UK. Lucknow, UP 7. Ms Hewlett 1877 England Zenana Mission Punjab 8. Ellen Mitchell 1878 American Baptist Board Burma 9. Fanny Butler 1880 Church of England Jabalpur, Mp. 10. Ida Faye 1881 American Baptist Mission Nellore, AP. 11. Anna Kugler 1883 Lutheran Mission, US Guntur, AP. 12. Elizabeth Beatty 1884 United Church of Canadian Mission Indore, MP. 13. Mana White 1886 United Presbyterian Church of America Siakot, (Jammu Border) 14. Jessie Carelton 1887 American Presbyterian Board Ambala, Punjab. 15. Matilda Machphail 1887 Free Church of Scotland Madras, TN 16. Ottoman 1890 Baptist Missionary Society Ganjam, Orissa Name of Women Year of Affiliation to Mission Place of work Arrival Name of Women Year of Affiliation to Mission Place of work Arrival 17. Edith Brown 1893 Society for Female Education in the East, UK Ludhiana, Punjab 18. Alene Calkins 1895 American Friends Mission Chhatrapur, UP. 19. Pearl Chute 1896 Canadian Baptist Mission Akkividu, AP. 20. Ida S Scudder 1900 Arcot American Mission Vellore, TN. 21. Gertude Hulet 1904 Canadian Baptist Mission Vuyyuru, AP. 22. Charlotte Pring 1915 Godavari Delta Mission Narsapur, AP. 23. Catherine ? American Methodist Episc. Board Jagadalpur, MP. 24. Annie Mackay 1926 Free Church of Scotland Lakhnadon, MP. 25. Katherine Lehmann 1928 ? Renigunta, AP.

    Slide 31:Ida Scudder

    Not a medical college but the kingdom of God (1918)

    Slide 32:Catherine-Methodist church- redefined access

    One Dr Catherine from the Methodist church in the US travelled by Ship for 6 months to Bombay To Raipur by train for a week Horse by several days to access the mission station called Bastar Methodist hospital built in 1892. Largest Methodist congregation in India

    Slide 33:Transformation of women

    The highest number of women doctors in the world India is a huge nurse factory 1947-95% of all nurses were Christian! All traceable to the womens medical colleges and nursing schools established by the missionaries

    Slide 34:Ancient India did not have a culture of care

    By a caring culture I mean formalized caring eg. Orphanages/hospitals Religion was divorced from loving your neighbor No hospitals existed except during the time of King Asoka in 2nd century BC Arya Vaidya Shalas existed for outpatient care for the privileged

    Slide 35:In what was a caring void

    Christian Medical missionaries ushered in a culture of care The first hospital (Royal hospital,Goa)in 1514 AD and then thousands afterwards.. Orphanageshome for widows Sanatoria for TB, leprosy homes and hospitals Programs for epidemic care

    Slide 36: Social work in India

    The kind of missionary work which we see in Christianity that kind of this did not exist in India for a very long time. Now the social work being done in Indiathose going out to help and serve others is all because of missionary & global influences.

    Slide 37:By 1940 AD.

    There were 2000 Christian hospitals in India Close to 40% of all beds were made up of Christian hospitals TB sanatoria and leprosy institutions were predominantly Christian

    Slide 38:Dr. Alexander Duff 1806-78

    Pioneer missionary educationist English education can have a transformative effect on the Indian society Scripture education introduced but made optional Downward filter theory-working with High castes Schools and colleges -Calcutta, Madras and Bombay

    Slide 39:Christians ushered in a culture of care

    Started many NGOs that looked at specific needs of the poor and provided succor Role modeled caring Taught caring

    Slide 40:Welfare-Social capital did not exist

    The only safety net for the poor was The joint family Individual philanthropy and The caste system

    Slide 41:The concept of the voluntary sector.

    Indian culture did not have this concept of volunteerism Activism for change was also not a part of Indian culture. (Barring a few exceptions no activists for social change)

    Slide 42:The concept of the voluntary sector..

    Christian missionaries pioneered the NPO and NGO sector (Pande 1967,Terry 1983) 1810-1947 This time saw the emergence of major Christian voluntary sector church based and non-church based. (NGOs) Hospitals, Schools, Orphanages and other welfare institutions flourished.

    Slide 43:As a result 1825 onwards

    Many Hindu bourgeoisie who studied in English medium schools Started social reform organizations for the purpose of caring Care of widows & remarriage Care of orphans & preventing child marriage

    Slide 44:The many champions of caring

    Some were Christians Some liked Christian values but were not Christians Most were provoked by the Christian gospel to care but remained Hindus

    Slide 45:Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1774-1833) founder of Brahmo Samaj

    A Hindu reformer and visionary, Roy is considered by many as the father of modern India. Oil Painting by Atul Bose Raja Ram drew inspiration from William Carey The first feminist

    Slide 46:Rishi Dayanand Saraswati 1824-83

    Founded Arya Samaj Spoke against idol-worship, casteism and female subjugation Assassinated in 1883 AD

    The prime object of the arya samaj is to do good; that is to promote physical, social &spiritual good for everyone

    Slide 48:Satyasodhak Samaj- Jyotirao Phule-1875

    Educated in The Scottish mission school Became a great educationist Started caringinstitutions

    Slide 49:Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar

    From 1854-55 he single-handedly wedged a battle against the extremist of the Hindu society and insisted in the implementation of the Widow-Remarriage Act in 1856.

    Slide 50:As a result Indian religions were challenged to reform

    Vivekananda brought in a new understanding of Hinduism

    Slide 51:Indian reformer

    Vivekananda 1863-1902 Father was given to reciting from the Bible-for amusement! Studied in Presidency college-Calcutta Later in Scottish church college studied English literature and western logic which brought into sharp focus the short comings of Indian society Was influenced by Raja Ram Mohan Roy also.

    Slide 52:Vivekananda

    He elevated the status of the service of fellow beings to the level of real worship of God. (PS Kamanant) Established Ramakrishna mission which began caring

    Slide 53:Ramakrishna mission was a reformist reaction to the Christian caring

    CalcuttaRamakrishna M. Institute of CultureAdvaitaAdvaita Ashram CalcuttaSRMSri Ramakrishna Math CalcuttaNarendrapurRamakrishna Mission College UdbodhanMother's HouseVidyapithRamakrishna VidyapithNew DelhiRamakrishna MissionRajkot/GujaratRamakrishna Mission AshramChennaiRamakrishna Math Mylapore ChennaiRamakrishna Mission AshramItanagarRamakrishna Mission Hospital APVidyapithRamakrishna Vidyapith ChennaiChengalpattuRamakrishna Mission Tamil NaduMaduraiRamakrishna Math CoimbatoreRamakrishna Mission Vidyalaya

    Slide 54:Ramakrishna mission locale

    BangaloreVivekananda AshramKochiRamakrishna Math, KeralaRanchiRamakrishna MissionKaladiRamakrishna Advaita Ashram KeralaPuneRamakrishna Math and MissionHydrabadRamakrishna MathVaranasiRamakrishna M.- Home of Service RKMRamakrishna VidyashalaKayamkulamSri Ramakrishna Ashram, KeralaJharkhandTB Sanatorium - RanchiMangaloreRamakrishna Mission Ashram

    Slide 55:Vivekananda

    Swami Vivekananda wrote in one of his letters : A hundred thousand men and women, will go over the length and breadth of the land, preaching the Gospel of salvation, the Gospel of help, the Gospel of social raising-up -- the Gospel of equality.

    Slide 56:Karsondas Mulji-1832-71

    Social Reformer, Educationist, Writer, Pamphleteer While in Elphinstone college. influenced by missionary John Wilson The Primitive Religion of the Hindus and the Present Heterodox Opinions in his journal led to the famous Maharaja Libel Widow remarriage-helped many

    Slide 57:Micheal Madusudandas English and Bengali writer

    1824-1876 AD- became a Christian Both The Captive Lady and Visions of the Past were written under the pen name Timothy. Editor of The Hindu Patriot. He composed Bengali plays such as Sharmistha, Ekey Bole Savyata, Buro Shaliker Ghare Ro, Krishnakumari and Padmabati. In most of his plays, he criticized the lack of caring present in the society.

    Slide 58:Dadabhai Naoroji 1824-1917

    Grand Old Man of India Studied in Elphinstone college-influenced by Dr Wilson Went from door to door recruiting girl students Freedom fighter-concerned for women Member of the house of commons

    Slide 59:Initially Jains were into hospitals for birds and animals only

    Jain Bird hospital in Old Delhi Gaushalas are old age homes for cows

    Slide 60:Jains now have many hospitals

    Bombay- Nanavati hospital, Sarvoday hospital, Matunga hospital, Lilavati hospital, Cardiac hospital in Matunga are all Jain. Surat Mahavir hospital is Jain Ahmedabad Vadilal Sarabhai hospital is Jain. Sri AmarJain hospital- Jaipur Bhagwan MahavirJain Hospital-Bangalore

    Slide 61:In personal conversation with Jains

    We (Jains) will not survive as a religion unless we begin to care like the missionaries.. Now Jains go abroad and raise money from the US and the UK for their hospitals and projects

    Slide 62:Emergence of Gandhian NGOs

    From 1947 to 1960 onwards many new Gandhian NGOs were started Hindu Kusht Nivaran Sangh was started at the behest of Gandhi. Shame on uswhy should missionaries (Gandhi)

    Slide 63:Mushrooming of NGOs

    Church related and Christian voluntary organizations led the way for the mushrooming of NGOs Though not all the NGOs are into welfare more than 100,000 NGOs are into some form of caring

    Slide 64:Ripple effect

    Non-Xian hospitals Other caring NGOs Advocacy Doctors & Nurses Man power for mission

    Slide 65:Disaster 1947 onwards..

    700 Protestant hospitals in India Many Indian trained D & N No visionary leaders!! 400 Xian hospitals closed in 40 years

    Slide 66:Missionary failure- Developed programs but not people

    Paradigm shift

    Slide 67:Programme Development to People Development - 2

    Jesus Follow me and I will make you fishers of men. Development of people more strategic than programs. Budgets do not reflect this more used for programs. Learning from history Disaster in India Paradigm shift

    Slide 68:Medical Missions - Custodians of the Culture of Care

    3 Types of Caring Commercial caring Professional caring Christian caring

    Either way Christian caring is an endangered phenomenon India West