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Presentation 2.2: Opportunities Realized Through Interface Forest Management. Outline. Introduction Interface management products Variety of products besides timber Timber can pay for further management of the land Challenges to multi-managing the land Summary. Introduction.

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Presentation 2 2 opportunities realized through interface forest management l.jpg

Presentation 2.2:Opportunities Realized Through Interface Forest Management

Outline l.jpg

  • Introduction

  • Interface management products

  • Variety of products besides timber

  • Timber can pay for further management of the land

  • Challenges to multi-managing the land

  • Summary

Introduction l.jpg

  • Avoid “timber” versus “nontimber”

  • Income generation is just one of many opportunities available on interface forests

  • Timber harvesting is compatible with many other forest products and can help pay for management needed to provide these products

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Multiple objectives

  • Variety of reasons to manage the land:

    • Income generation

    • Fire risk reduction

    • Amenity resources

    • Forest health

    • Wildlife

    • Water management

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Alternative forest products

  • Decorative

  • Herbal

  • Medicinal

  • Edible

  • Enhance property value

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Business venture

Marketing nontimber forest products website


Nontimber forest industry

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Timber and pulp income

  • Longer rotation ages

  • Processed timber

  • Forest certification

  • Christmas trees

  • Biomass

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Property value

  • Universal technique used to value tree

  • Increase or decrease based on the trees

Aggregating across the South, the total compensation value for residential trees approaches one trillion dollars.

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Conversion harvests

  • Increased amenity values on residential property

  • Facilitate silvicultural management

  • Aesthetic trees increase property value

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Tourism income

  • Hunting leases

  • ATV trails

  • Wildlife viewing areas

  • Eco-tourism

  • Bed and breakfast lodging

  • Hiking

  • Retreats

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Liability and Marketing

  • Liability is an issue if people are invited on property

    • Avoid negligence

    • Obtain liability insurance

  • Successful business requires planning

    • Understand customer

    • Understand competition

    • Develop marketing plan

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Exercise 2.5:Interface Moneymakers

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Exercise 2.5 Discussion Questions

  • What resources and information should your agency provide to encourage successful ventures?

  • What perceptions and constraints are barriers to landowners launching these enterprises?

  • Marketing and liability concerns are important to any successful business. Do you have examples of landowners that have successfully addressed these concerns?

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Challenge of managing WUI fire

  • Common in southern ecosystems

  • South has most fire starts and acres burned

  • Objections to interface fire include

    • concerns about forest aesthetics and forest health

    • concerns about safety of structures

    • access and responsibility

    • negative impacts of smoke on human health and driving safety

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Firewise solutions

  • Firewise communities

    • Large fire breaks (golf courses, farms)

  • Firewise structures

    • Nonflammable material, gutters, windows, driveways

  • Firewise landscaping around structures

    • Lean, clean, green

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Firewise plant characteristics

  • High moisture content

  • Broad and thick leaves

  • Low chemical content

  • Open and loose branching patterns

  • Deciduousness

  • Low amounts of dead materials

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Plants to avoid in defensible space

  • Saw palmetto

    • accumulate dead leaves (fronds)

  • Juniper

    • resins in leaves and branches

  • Mountain laurel

    • dense leaves and branches close to ground

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Fuel reduction

  • Mechanical thinning

  • Herbicides

  • Prescribed burning

  • Animal grazing

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Exercise 2.6:Firewise Conversations

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Exercise 2.13:Juggling Multiple Objectives

Case study 21 wildfire preparedness in mississippi l.jpg

Case Study 21:Wildfire Preparedness in Mississippi

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Case Study 11:Life on the Edge: Interface Issues in Bastrop, Texas

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Amenity resources

  • Scenery

  • Trails

  • Privacy

  • Shade

    Typically the MOST important

    product of interface forests

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Scenery sells

  • Park-like stands with large trees and low ground cover

  • Low or no downed wood, trash, waste

  • Open vistas and meadows

  • Thinning creates depth of view, larger trees

  • Ephemeral features

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  • Value natural appearances

  • Minimize human intervention

  • Careful design

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Picnic, park, and camp

  • Soil compaction kills older, sensitive trees

    • Use young, deep rooted trees

  • Parking lots

    • should drain away from water source

    • or have a swale to hold water and allow pollutants to settle

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Trail creation

  • Add loops

    • Create diversity

    • One-way traffic

    • Single entry point

    • Interconnected

  • Plan skid and logging roads to become trails

  • Consider use conflicts

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Trail building considerations

  • Soils

  • Trail size

  • Trail grade

  • Trail alignment

  • Streams, lakes and trails

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Privacy and Shade

  • Vegetation visual buffers

  • Vegetation performs poorly as an acoustic buffers

  • Shade can significantly reduce

    • temperature (10-15 degrees)

    • cooling costs (10-80%)

  • Shade can direct/block cooling breezes

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Regional amenity

  • Visual character of a region

  • Transformation of lands

  • Visitor perceptions

  • Recreational activities

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Practicing visiblestewardship

  • Public perception

  • Visual screening

  • Cues-to-care

  • Forest management

  • Environmental impacts

  • Terminology

Cues to care l.jpg

  • Waste and damage

  • Neatness

  • Schedule and duration

  • Planning and safety

  • Communication

  • Re-vegetation

  • Appearances

  • Community commitment

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Screen/hide management

  • Add visual buffers

  • Keep aesthetics in mind

  • Limit downed wood

  • May create negative perceptions

  • Communicate with the public

Exercise 2 7 scenery and trails l.jpg

Exercise 2.7:Scenery and Trails

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Exercise 2.7: Discussion Questions

  • Which suggested aesthetic timber harvesting techniques are most feasible? Why?

  • Which techniques are least feasible? Why?

  • Which techniques are least costly? Why?

  • In addition to laying out skid trails and logging roads with a future trail system in mind, what other work is needed to finish a trail system?

  • What other techniques exist to increase scenery and trails in the wildland-urban interface?

Forest health l.jpg
Forest health

  • Historically narrow in scope

  • Expansion of definition

  • Influenced by people

  • Investment

  • Environmental safety

  • Personal opinion and values

  • Experience is the key

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Site management

  • Construction damage

    • Roots and stems

  • Toxic chemicals

    • Tree-friendliness

  • Species selection

    • Nursery personnel

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Insects and diseases

  • Bark beetle and wood borers

  • Defoliating insects

  • Sap-feeding insects

  • Girdling insects

  • Canker diseases

  • Tree decline

  • Leaf diseases

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Abiotic factors and invasives

  • Abiotic factors

    • Lightning strikes

    • Drought

    • Flooding

  • Invasive plants

    • Kudzu

  • Invasive animals

    • Coyote

    • Armadillo

  • Nuisance animals

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Exercise 2.8:Promoting Forest Health

Case study 1 the challenge of controversial resource issues southern pine beetle l.jpg

Case Study 1:The Challenge of Controversial Resource Issues: Southern Pine Beetle

Wildlife l.jpg

  • Approximately 87 million people participate in wildlife-associated activities each year

  • Approximately $108 billion is spent on these activities per year

  • Managing for wildlife is a challenge due to

    • forest fragmentation

    • development

    • landowners opinion about wildlife

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Effects of human expansion

“What are the likely effects of expanding human populations, urbanization, and infrastructure on wildlife and their habitats?”

  • Non-native species threaten the survival of some sensitive wildlife species.

  • Urban and agricultural land uses have created forest islands.

  • Disturbed areas facilitate the spread of non-native species.

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Human-wildlife conflicts

  • Vectors for disease

    • Lyme disease

    • West Nile virus

  • Car accidents

  • Property damage

  • Control strategies

  • Species diversity

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Managing nuisance wildlife

  • Human-wildlife conflicts

  • Exclusion

  • Habitat modification

  • Repellents

  • Toxic baits and pesticides

  • Glue boards and traps

  • Scare tactics

Attracting wildlife l.jpg

Limit amount of lawn

Increase vertical layering

Leave snags and brush piles

Provide water source

Plant native vegetation

Put up feeders and houses

Remove invasive exotics

Manage household pets

Reduce pesticide use

Expand scale of habitat

Attracting wildlife

Exercise 2 9 wild stories l.jpg

Exercise 2.9:Wild Stories

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Case Study 4:Deer Debate in Hilton Head, South Carolina

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Effects of urbanization on the water cycle

  • Forests intercept precipitation.

  • Approximately 2/3 of incoming precipitation is released back into the atmosphere.

  • Remaining water recharges the groundwater and contributes to streams.

  • Forest clearing generates more storm-water runoff, reduces amount of water that soaks into the ground.

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Strategies to minimize threats

  • Watershed management plan

  • Forest protection

    • Land acquisition

    • Conservation easements

  • Reduction of impervious cover

    • Minimize paved surfaces

    • Clustering development

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Control of pollutant sources

  • Limit fertilizer application

    • Community programs

    • Demonstration gardens

  • Improve the treatment of wastewater

    • Septic systems

    • Management tools

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Storm-water management

  • Best management practices (BMPs)

    • Detention ponds

  • Low impact development (LID) practices

    • Treat water where it falls

    • Vegetated rooftops

    • New methods to convey water

  • Implementation obstacles

    • Steep slopes

    • Impacted soils

    • Shallow water

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Case Study 19:Treasuring Forests in Alabama

Summary l.jpg

Understanding the variety of opportunities, values, and ecosystem services that interface forest management provides is key to developing a positive relationship with landowners.

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  • Slide 5, 7, 10, 26, 27, 28, 32: Virginia Tech

  • Slide 6, 8, 9, 15, 23, 31, 36, 39, 50: Larry Korhnak

  • Slide 16: Bobby Dean,

  • Slide 17: Chris Evans, The University of Georgia,

  • Slide 37: James Solomon, USDA Forest Service,

  • Slide 38: Ronald F. Billings, Texas Forest Service,


  • Slide 8: Nowak, D. J.; D. E. Crane; and J. F. Dwyer. 2002. “Compensatory Value of Urban Trees in the United States.” Journal of Arboriculture 28(4): 194-199.

Credits56 l.jpg


  • Slide 16, 17:Behm, A.; A. Long; M. C. Monroe; C. Randall; W. Zipperer; and A. Hermansen-Baez. 2004. Fire in the Wildland-Urban Interface: Preparing a Firewise Plant List for WUI Residents (Circular 1453). Gainesville FL: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, School of Forest Resources and Conservation.

  • Slide 42: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau.2002. 2001 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation 2-6, 37-51.

  • Slide 43: Wear, D. and J. Greis. 2002. The Southern Forest Resource Assessment: Summary Report (Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-54). Asheville NC: USDA, Forest Service, Southern Research Station.

  • Slide 46: Hostetler, M. E.; G. Klowden; S. W. Miller; and K. N. Youngentob. 2003. Landscaping Backyards for Wildlife: Top Ten Tips for Success (Circular 1429).