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Plant Environment: Water. Water makes up 80-90% of herbaceous and 50% of woody plants. Water is important to plants. Water critical for plant growth (photosynthesis: 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O ---> C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 ). Water needed to obtain nutrients from soil (nutrients dissolved in water).

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plant environment water
Plant Environment: Water
  • Water makes up 80-90% of herbaceous and 50% of woody plants
  • Water is important to plants
  • Water critical for plant growth (photosynthesis: 6CO2 + 6H2O ---> C6H12O6 + 6O2)
  • Water needed to obtain nutrients from soil (nutrients dissolved in water)
  • Water needed for cell elongation, one way plant tissues increase in size
plant environment water2
Plant Environment: Water
  • From soil into root cells
  • Water enters root hairs (projections of cells above root tip)
  • How does water move through plants?
  • Root hairs greatly increase surface area for water entry
  • Root cells ‘pump’ minerals into cells (using ATP energy)
  • High concentration of minerals inside roots creates osmotic gradient (difference in water concentration)
  • Water moves from high to low water concentration
  • Adding minerals into roots decreases the concentration of water in roots causing water to enter by osmosis
plant environment water3
Plant Environment: Water
  • From root cells to xylem in roots
  • Water (and minerals) move between or through cells of cortex
  • How does water move through plants?
  • Casparian strips blocks water, force it through membranes of endodermal cells
  • Endodermal cells selects nutrients that enter xylem
plant environment water4
Plant Environment: Water
  • Xylem is dead, hollow, tubular cells
  • How does water move through plants?
plant environment water5
Plant Environment: Water
  • From xylem upward to leaves
  • Water molecules ‘clings’ to xylem and to each other
  • How does water move through plants?
  • Water in xylem is unbroken ‘column’
  • Water evaporates from leaves ‘pulling’ water up xylem
  • Evaporative water loss through stomates of leaves is transpiration
  • 90% of water ‘absorbed’ by roots lost via transpiration in leaves
plant environment water6
Plant Environment: Water
  • Cooling turf or greenhouse (by evaporative cooling)
  • Frost protection
  • Other uses of water in horticulture
  • Modify local environment
  • Irrigation
plant environment water7
Plant Environment: Water
  • Slight water stress causes stomates to close; photosynthesis reduced
  • Water deficiency in plants
  • Reduction in growth
  • Smaller leaves
  • Shorter internodes
  • Smaller plants
  • Slight water stress can effectively prevent fast, leggy growth
plant environment water8
Plant Environment: Water
  • Severe water deficiency
  • wilting
  • Water deficiency in plants
  • Dry leaf tips or margins
  • Yellowing of older leaves
  • Abscission of leaves, flowers, fruit
  • Same symptoms can occur because of prolonged, excess water
plant environment water9
Plant Environment: Water
  • Container plants
  • Saturate soil with water; let dry before next watering
  • Proper watering of plants
  • Watering completely encourages root growth throughout container
  • Always use pots with drainage holes
  • Water until some water trickles out of drainage holes
  • Overwatering occurs from watering too frequently not too much at one time
plant environment water10
Plant Environment: Water
  • garden plants
  • Garden plants need regular water
  • Proper watering of plants
  • Deficits followed by excess water during particular growth stages reduces quality of vegetable
  • beans with large air pockets
  • Ruptures in tomato skin
  • Growth cracks in carrots
plant environment water11
Plant Environment: Water
  • Soluble salt problems result from:
  • High levels of salt in soil
  • Soluble salt problems:
  • High level of salt in irrigation water
  • Excessive use of fertilizers
  • Symptoms include:
  • Wilting
  • Drying of tips of margins of leaves
  • Abscission of leaves, flower, fruit

(Symptoms same as lack of water…why?)

  • Problem solved by flushing plant with water