NPOESS ERA Microwave Imager . Polar Max Silver Spring, MD October 26, 2006. CMIS Replacement Trade Study Background (1/2). NPOESS Acquisition Decision Memorandum (ADM) of June 5 Called for termination of the CMIS development
Silver Spring, MD
October 26, 2006
NPOESS Acquisition Decision Memorandum (ADM) of June 5
CMIS Replacement trade study was organized by the NPOESS IPO
Evaluate each EDR that was driving the CMIS design
Define sensor trade space
Evaluate each part of the sensor trade space
Additional information was needed from potential industry suppliers
Microwave Imaging Applications: SSMIS, WindSat, SSM/I, TMI
CMIS Replacement (NPOESS Microwave Imager) Trade Study
Acquisition Strategy for the NPOESS Era Microwave Imager
Sea Surface Wind Direction (WindSat)
Temperature and Moisture Profiles / NWP (SSMIS)
Sea Surface Temperature and *Soil Moisture (AMSR + WindSat)
* EDRs with KPP attributes
Soil Moisture Determined from AMSR Following Passage of Major Late Winter Storm
Front (S. Chan, JPL) and precipitation map developed by NOAA Climatic Data Center.
WindSat Data Comparison with NCEP Forecast Model Showing Detection (Analysis by R. Atlas, NOAA AMOL, Ocean Sciences Conference, February 2006).
NCEP analysis January 6
WindSat Surface Wind retrievals
in the North Atlantic show the presence
of paired cyclonic vortices not captured
until the following day by the National
Center for Environmental Prediction
(NCEP) forecast analysis.
NCEP analysis January 7
[RIGHT] The cold wake was not seen by the visible/infrared
AVHRR imager (right) due to areas of persistent rain and
cloud cover (white patches) over the 3-day period.
[LEFT] A cold wake (blue region near the white circles)
was produced by Hurricane Bonnie on 24 to 26 August 1998,
as seen by the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI)
White dots: Hurricane Bonnie’s daily position as it moved northwest from 24 through 26 August.
Gray dots: Hurricane Danielle as it moved northwest from 27 August through 1 September.
Danielle crossed Bonnie’s cold wake on 29 August and its intensity dropped. Cloud cover prevented AVHRR from observing this sequence, however, TMI was able to measure characteristics of the surface.
Remote Sensing Systems
Monthly averages for three climate state variables:
1) Sea Surface Temperature (SST),
2) Lower Tropospheric Temperature (LTT),
3) Total Atmospheric Water Vapor (WV)
The seasonal cycle has been removed to reveal the inter-annual variability
Continuity of Data Records is Critical for Global Climate Studies
Atmospheric Water Vapor: 3-days ending 20060404
AMSR-E Cloud Liquid Water: 3-days ending 20060404
Water Vapor: 0 15 30 45 60 75 mm
Liquid Water: 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 mm
Global maps of total Precipitable Water and Cloud Liquid Water are produced from AMSR data on the Aqua satellite and from SSM/I and SSMIS on DMSP
These datasets have value for weather forecasts and models of the energy and water cycles.
Precipitable Water Vapor is considered critical for data continuity for GEOSS.
Only microwave sensors can provide estimates of Cloud Liquid Water.
Rain rate (mm/h) at 2 km height from TMI. Squall line south of Japan. (From Aonashi and Liu, JAM, 2000).
Measurements of precipitation rate are valuable for tactical maneuvers,
maritime navigation and fisheries dynamics.
TMI provides rain rate measurements over the tropics.
The addition of 166- and 183-GHz channels adds capability to
measure snow and small ice.
Ten years ago? TOVS NESDIS retrievals, AMV, more but lower quality radiosondesImpact to NWP From Loss of Data by Type (ECMWF)
Impact of Microwave Data on NWP Has Significantly Increased
After Saunders, R., et. al., “Exploitation of Satellite Data at the UK Met Office,”
CMS (MIS) Role
Atmospheric Profiles: Temperature*, Moisture*
Improved weather forecasting
More reliable forecasts for mission planning
Provides all-weather atmospheric profiles
Cloud Imagery*, Cloud Products, Precipitation Products
Nowcasts, weather events
Aircraft operations, tactical planning, target visibility
Provides precipitation and related cloud products
Sea Surface Wind*,
Sea Height/Wave Parameters
Shipping safety, port/beach operations, site selection
Aircraft carrier and amphibious operations
Provides sea surface wind speed/direction
Sea Surface Temperature*, Sea Height/Wave Parameters, Ocean Color
Fisheries, pollution tracking, El Nino/La Nina forecasts
Mine clearing, anti-submarine warfare, special operations
Provides all weather sea surface temperature
Soil Moisture*, Land/Vegetation Products
Agriculture, water and land use management
Mobility, trafficability, cover assessment
Provides soil moisture
Aerosols, Dust, and Ash Products
Aviation hazards, atmospheric research
Aviation hazards, target visibility
Ozone Column and Profile Products
Ozone monitoring, depletion, mechanisms
Ozone is related to stratospheric turbulence hazardous to UAVs
Energy Balance, Radiation Products
Improved weather forecast, climate models
Improved weather forecast
Key input to net heat flux product
Climate Relevant Products
Monitoring, change, prediction
Interest in medium range weather changes affecting battlefield
Supplements surface, atmosphere, and cloud data products
Space Environment Products
Research, power grid and communication disruption
Space weather, EMI, sensor damage
Not applicableUse of NPOESS and Microwave EDR Products
Summary of Civil and Military Applications of NPOESS Data Products
Soil Moisture Key Performance Parameter (KPP)
Considerations for microwave sounding
Cost relationship of channel selection and reflector size
SSM/I and SSMIS
[Right] Regions where Soil Moisture retrieval can be
performed with the addition of a 6-GHz (and 10-GHz)
measurement capability. Regions indicated by all
areas that are green include regions of moderate
vegetation and exclude only dense vegetation and
[Left] Current DMSP capability using SSM/I or SSMIS
with the lowest channel frequency of 19.35-GHz.
Areas shaded in green indicate regions where the
legacy sensor is capable of detecting soil moisture,
essentially areas of bare soil
Addition of 6- and 10-GHz channels substantially increases the value of
Soil Moisture measurements from the microwave imager
NO SAT + SSMIS
NO SAT + N15 AMSU
After Saunders, R., et. al., “Exploitation of Satellite Data at the UK Met Office,” Microrad ’06, San Juan Puerto Rico.
System reliability analyses indicate atmospheric temperature and moisture profile
measurement capability is needed on MIS or additional ATMS need to be added
to orbital planes where CMIS was the only microwave sensor previously manifested
Reflector size (~sensor spatial resolution) and horizontal cell size (measurement resolution)
relationship for selected microwave EDR threshold requirements.
The Horizontal Cell Size
(HCS) is based on the
lowest primary channel
frequency required for the
Vertical bars indicate the ~reflector size necessary to meet the threshold spatial resolution for each EDR.
Horizontal lines show the reflector sizes for each of the class of options within the trade space.
Any vertical bar that extends above the specific horizontal line implies that the spatial resolution
achieved by that sensor will not meet threshold HCS requirements for the EDR
Sensor Development Models
Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI)
Characterized by complete technical and science support;
“EDR” performance and analysis kept within the Government
Key aspects of the MI acquisition strategy plan (proposed)
Microwave Imager plan forward:
Draft Request for Information (RFI) is nearly complete
What class of microwave sensor can be built for NPOESS?
Scenarios for Microwave Imager Science Algorithms
Develop RFI and evaluate affordability and contract structure
Sensor Specification Development (Industry Option)
Algorithm Specification and Science Code Development
MI Sensor Development (Industry or Government-Industry) (TBD)
The replacement trade study considered EDR performance, Cost and Schedule from several perspectives
Terminating CMIS and restructuring the way NPOESS does business for the CMIS replacement will be a challenge
Restructuring is a means to address and mitigate previous procurement risks
An acquisition strategy decision for the NPOESS Microwave Imager is expected by January 2007
Microwave imager is a key part of NPOESS!
Overview and background on microwave imager data
Channels required to make the measurements
Defined a sensor trade space
Developed independent cost estimates
Estimated cost compared to capability
Additional consideration for microwave sounding
Low Frequency Reflector
High Frequency Reflector
Cold Sky Reflector
Low Frequency Feeds
High Frequency Feeds
*Polarizations: V=Vertical, H=Horizontal, P=+45 degrees,
M =–45 degrees, L=Left-hand Circular, R=Right-hand Circular