introduction to research l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Introduction to Research PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Introduction to Research

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 27

Introduction to Research - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 171 Views
  • Uploaded on

Introduction to Research. Objectives. Become an educated consumer of research by being able to: Differentiate among the different types of information available Perform a short term, focused literature search

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Introduction to Research' - richard_edik


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
objectives
Objectives
  • Become an educated consumer of research by being able to:
    • Differentiate among the different types of information available
    • Perform a short term, focused literature search
    • Maintain an ongoing search of the literature for material related to a topic of interest
types of periodicals
Types of Periodicals
  • Scholarly
  • Substantive News/General Interest
  • Popular
  • Sensational
scholarly
Scholarly
  • Concerned with research and academic study (main purpose is to disseminate research)
  • Have a serious appearance with graphs and charts, and little advertising
  • Footnotes and/or reference lists for every article
  • Articles written by a reputable scholar or researcher
  • Not easily read by layman because of use of the language of the discipline
  • Usually, but not always, published by a professional organization (e.g. JAMA, Physical Therapy)
substantive news general interest
Substantive News/General Interest
  • Generally, attractive (glossy, photos), although some in newspaper format
  • May cite sources, but not usually
  • Main purpose: provide general information to a broad audience of generally intelligent people; no specialty assumed
  • Articles by staff or freelance writers
  • Examples: National Geographic, Scientific American
popular
Popular
  • Main purpose: to entertain
  • Slick and attractive with lots of photos
  • Rarely, if ever, cite sources.
  • Information often second or third hand and rarely any depth to articles
  • Simple language used for minimally educated public
  • Examples: Time, Vogue, Readers Digest
sensational
Sensational
  • Main purpose: arouse curiosity and make you buy it
  • Flashy headlines
  • Assume gullibility in the audience
  • Cater to the superstitious
  • Examples: (You fill in the blank!)
types of information available
Types of Information Available
  • Theory
  • Facts
  • Opinions
  • Methods
theory
Theory
  • “A body of interrelated principles that present a systematic view of a phenomena.”
  • Acceptable and useful, but not absolute; a “tentative” explanation, consistent with available information.
  • Can be tested and proved wrong (one can never “prove” a theory right).
  • Provides a basis for research.
example
Example
  • Theory: CNS does not regenerate and what return occurs is due to healing of basically intact but temporarily injured structures, and will happen within first five years after injury.
  • Acceptable and useful for many years in dealing with persons with SCI.
  • Now being questioned by Christopher Reeves who is getting return of sensation and motion after seven years.
  • This case provides a basis for doing more research on more persons with SCI to test the theory.
facts
Facts
  • Factual information about a topic
  • Examples:
    • Protocols
    • Results from other clinicians
    • Results of previous investigations/research
opinions
Opinions
  • What someone thinks about something.
  • Examples:
    • Opinions of clinicians about the effectiveness of a treatment protocol
    • Opinions of researchers about important areas still in need of study
    • Editorial opinions
    • Invited commentaries on an article
methods
Methods
  • Articles providing information about the method describe the technique used to collect information.
  • Examples:
    • Techniques used by clinicians to measure the success (or not) of a treatment protocol
    • Techniques used to measure and analyze data in research studies
practice
Practice
  • Review the sample articles provided by the instructor and determine if they provide primarily theory, fact, opinion or methods. Defend your choice.
  • If an article contains many types of information, identify which types and where in the paper these are found.
types of professional literature
Types of Professional Literature
  • Primary sources
  • Secondary sources
primary sources
Primary Sources
  • An original research report
  • Allows the reader to make a judgment about the validity and reliability (credibility) of the research
  • Examples:
    • Journal articles describing original research
    • Theses
    • Dissertations
    • Conference abstracts and proceedings
secondary sources
Secondary Sources
  • Summarize own work or work of others
    • Organize the literature for the reader
    • Provide primary references
  • Examples:
    • Book chapters
    • Literature review journal articles
practice18
Practice
  • Review the sample articles provided by the instructor and determine if they are primarily primary of secondary sources. Defend your choice.
  • (a) Where, in a primary source, will you find secondary sources cited? (b) What is the difference between this and a secondary source?
focused literature search
Focused Literature Search
  • Conducted for a specific purpose or to answer a specific question
  • Examples:
    • To plan care for individual patients
    • To evaluate existing programs
    • To develop research proposals
search tools
Search Tools
  • Your own books and journals
  • Library holdings
  • Single-journal indexes
  • Multiple-journal databases
  • Dissertation and thesis databases
  • Conference papers and proceedings databases
  • Human resources
using a single article to further your search
Using a Single Article to Further Your Search
  • Backwards: look at references to see related articles on same topic; yields older articles
  • Forward: Science Citation Index will yield articles written after that have cited this paper as a reference
  • Sideways: (via electronic citations)
    • Related-record searching
    • Using keyword or subject headings
ongoing literature search
Ongoing Literature Search
  • Single-journal contents scanning
  • Multiple-journal contents scanning
  • Multiple-journal reviews
  • Focused database scanning
single journal contents scanning
Single-Journal Contents Scanning
  • Table of contents
  • Book reviews
  • Journal article reviews/abstracts
multiple journal contents scanning
Multiple-Journal Contents Scanning
  • Electronically access table of contents of several journals
    • JAMA
  • Current Contents
    • Current Contents: Clinical Medicine
    • Current Contents: Life Sciences
multiple journal reviews
Multiple-Journal Reviews
  • References that:
    • Inform the practitioner of new articles
    • Assess the potential value of an article
  • Physical Therapy in Perspective
    • Hard copy available by subscription
  • ACP (American College of Physicians) Journal Club
    • Focuses on “evidence-based” literature
  • Example: APTA Book & Literature Review
focused database scanning
Focused Database Scanning
  • Regular scanning of relevant databases:
    • Your own books and journals
    • Library holdings
    • Single-journal indexes
    • Multiple-journal databases
    • Dissertation and thesis databases
    • Conference papers and proceedings databases
obtaining literature items
Obtaining Literature Items
  • Library holdings
  • Interlibrary loan
  • Full text retrieval via the Internet
  • Document delivery systems
  • Reprints from authors
  • Purchase of back issues of a journal from the publisher
  • Network of professional colleagues