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Internet and the web Summary of terms discusses and review The Internet, 1969 by ARPAnet The Internet was founded, by a US military network called: ARPAnet (Advanced Research Projects Agency network.) The Internet is a worldwide network of networks.

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the internet 1969 by arpanet
The Internet, 1969 by ARPAnet
  • The Internet was founded, by a US military network called:

ARPAnet (Advanced Research Projects Agency network.)

  • The Internet is a worldwide network of networks.
    • One computer network consists of millions of computers that are physically connected together using wires, telephone lines and other media.
    • It is many smaller networks connected together forming one large network called the Internet
  • TCP/IP(Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the software/ protocol that is used to connect computers together
world wide web www invented by tim berners lee cern 1989
World Wide Web (WWW) Invented by Tim Berners-Lee CERN, 1989
  • The World Wide Web (now referred to as the web or WWW)
  • The web is one of the Internet services
  • Using the Web, you have access to millions of pages of information (video, text, music, images).
  • The pages on the web are connected together by hypertext or links
  • Web "surfing” or “browsing” is done with a Web browser
  • The most popular of which are Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer (I.E.)
web browsers mosaic netscape and internet explorer i e
Web BrowsersMosaic, Netscape, and Internet Explorer (I.E.)
  • A browser is an application program or software that provides a way to browse and interact with information on the World Wide Web.
  • Lynx: is the first web browser (only text) created in 1989
  • Mosaic (1992) is the first graphical Web browser which allowed you to view multimedia files (music, video, and graphical files) on the Web
  • Netscape in 1994
  • I.E. in 1995
slide5

Web Servers and browsers

  • Browser (is the client): the browser is a piece of software thatrequests documents from the server
  • Server is software that allows a computer connected to the Internet to:
    • store documents (text, images, video, sound files.. Etc..)
    • delivers or sends back these documents to the browser
  • Both the browser and the server understand the HTTP (Hyper text transfer protocol) protocol and use it to communicate together
slide6

Protocols(software /code/set of rules/regulations)

PPP: (Point to Point Protocol) used to connect a Personal computer to the Internet via modem

SMTP: (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) used to send (route) e-mail over the Internet

FTP: (File transfer protocol) used when transferring files on the Internet

FUGU: is an application (not a protocol)used on the Mac to transfer files to and from a local computer to a remote computer

WINSCP: is an application(not a protocol) used on the PC to transfer files between computers connected to the internet

HTTP: (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). A protocol for the web used to communicate between servers and browsers. It’s a set of rules for exchanging files (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other files) on the World Wide Web.

slide7

Host & IP address

  • Host: On the Internet, the term "host" means any computer that has full two-way access to other computers on the Internet. A host has a specific "local or host number" that, together with the network number, forms its unique IP(Internet Protocol) address.
  • www.nyu.edu is the host which should corresponds to 128.122.108.9 ip address
url uniform resource locator
URL: Uniform Resource Locator)
  • A URL is web address
    • the address of a file or a web page on the web
  • The URL for this class :
    • http://cs.nyu.edu/
domain name is part of a url or a web address it s the part that identifies the institution or
Domain name: is part of a URL or a web address. It’s the part that identifies the institution or
  • A domain name locates an organization or other entity on the Internet. It is usually the organization or company’s trademark.
  • Every company or organization has to apply for its unique domain name and it has to be approved by ICANN (International NON-Profit group that administers the domain-name system) or other private companies such as register.com. The cost can range from $9 to $30 per year
  • What is the domain name and top level domain name for the following web address:
    • http://cs.nyu.edu/
    • Domain name is: “nyu.edu”
    • Top level domain name from above is “edu”
    • Top level domain name can be:
      • .com (company or commercial)
      • .gov (government)
      • .mil (Military)
      • .org (non profit organization)
      • .edu.fr (including suffixes identifying countries)
      • .com.af (company in Africa)
      • .com.br (company in Brazil
dns domain name system
DNS: Domain Name System
  • A centralized database lists domain names and IP addresses which are distributed throughout the Internet.
  • There is probably a DNS server within close geographic proximity to your access provider that maps the domain names in your Internet requests or forwards them to other servers in the Internet.
javascript java 1995
JavaScript & JAVA, 1995
  • JavaScript, created by Netscape, a very popular scripting language for the web
  • Java, created by SUN in 1995. An object oriented language, Allows for real-time interactivity (chat) and creating powerful applications on the web and also independent of the web
isp internet service providers
(ISP) Internet Service Providers
  • With an affordable modem, people could connect to the Internet and browse the web using commercial online services such as:
  • AOL, Earthlink, AT&T.