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Computer Basics . Tianguang Ball State University. Content. Main box Peripherals Software . Computer . Desktop Laptop Server. Personal computer . PC MAC. Server. More?. Main box. Mother board CPU Memory Extensions Drives . Memory . Primary Memory

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Computer basics l.jpg

Computer Basics

Tianguang

Ball State University


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Content

  • Main box

  • Peripherals

  • Software


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Computer

  • Desktop

  • Laptop

  • Server





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Main box

  • Mother board

  • CPU

  • Memory

  • Extensions

  • Drives


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Memory

  • Primary Memory

    • RAM (random access memory):

      • is the most common memory chip.

      • will not remain if power goes off.

      • must move data onto a disk if it is to be saved.

    • ROM (read-only memory):

      • information is stored permanently on a chip.

      • contains startup information and other permanent data.

  • Secondary Memory

    • Disks (magnetic and optical disks)


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DRAM and Cache

  • DRAM --Dynamic Random Access memory—mostly in PC and must be constantly refreshed or it will lose the content

  • SDRAMSynchronous DRAM--is tied to the system clock.

  • SRAM—Static Random Access Memory—faster and more reliable than DRAM but expensive. Usually used for cache.

  • Cache is a special high-speed storage mechanism. It can be either a reserved section of main memory or an independent high-speed storage device.


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CPU = Control Unit + ALU

  • The Control Unit coordinates the operation of all the other components.

  • The ALU performs all arithmetic calculations and logical decisions.

  • CPU speed is determined by the internal clock of a computer and measured in Megahertz. 2.6GHz, 2.7GHz, 2.8 GHz, 3.2GHz, …

  • Comparing CPU speeds in different architectures?


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Drives

  • Hard drive

  • Disk drive

  • CD drive

  • Zip

  • DVD


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Flash drives

  • Portable hard drive


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Peripherals

  • Input

    • Mouse

    • Keyboard

    • microphone

    • Scanner

    • Digital camera

  • Output

    • Monitor

    • Printer

    • Speaker

    • projector


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Computer Software

  • System software

  • Application programs

  • User interfaces

    • Graphic interface (Win and Mac)


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System Software

  • The operating system controls:

    • communication with peripherals.

    • the coordination of concurrent processing.

    • memory management.

    • the monitoring of resources and security.

    • the management of programs and data.

  • Utility software controls tasks such as:

    • repairing damaged files.

    • making it easy for users to copy files from one storage device to another.

    • translating files so different software can read them.

    • guarding against viruses.


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Application software

  • Programs that can be used to create different products.

  • Word, Excel, PowerPoint, ……


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Courseware

  • Educational application programs that can be used directly for teaching and learning to achieve instructional goals.


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