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Computer Basics . Tianguang Ball State University. Content. Main box Peripherals Software . Computer . Desktop Laptop Server. Personal computer . PC MAC. Server. More?. Main box. Mother board CPU Memory Extensions Drives . Memory . Primary Memory

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computer basics

Computer Basics

Tianguang

Ball State University

content
Content
  • Main box
  • Peripherals
  • Software
computer
Computer
  • Desktop
  • Laptop
  • Server
main box
Main box
  • Mother board
  • CPU
  • Memory
  • Extensions
  • Drives
memory
Memory
  • Primary Memory
    • RAM (random access memory):
      • is the most common memory chip.
      • will not remain if power goes off.
      • must move data onto a disk if it is to be saved.
    • ROM (read-only memory):
      • information is stored permanently on a chip.
      • contains startup information and other permanent data.
  • Secondary Memory
    • Disks (magnetic and optical disks)
dram and cache
DRAM and Cache
  • DRAM --Dynamic Random Access memory—mostly in PC and must be constantly refreshed or it will lose the content
  • SDRAMSynchronous DRAM--is tied to the system clock.
  • SRAM—Static Random Access Memory—faster and more reliable than DRAM but expensive. Usually used for cache.
  • Cache is a special high-speed storage mechanism. It can be either a reserved section of main memory or an independent high-speed storage device.
cpu control unit alu
CPU = Control Unit + ALU
  • The Control Unit coordinates the operation of all the other components.
  • The ALU performs all arithmetic calculations and logical decisions.
  • CPU speed is determined by the internal clock of a computer and measured in Megahertz. 2.6GHz, 2.7GHz, 2.8 GHz, 3.2GHz, …
  • Comparing CPU speeds in different architectures?
drives
Drives
  • Hard drive
  • Disk drive
  • CD drive
  • Zip
  • DVD
flash drives
Flash drives
  • Portable hard drive
peripherals
Peripherals
  • Input
    • Mouse
    • Keyboard
    • microphone
    • Scanner
    • Digital camera
  • Output
    • Monitor
    • Printer
    • Speaker
    • projector
computer software
Computer Software
  • System software
  • Application programs
  • User interfaces
    • Graphic interface (Win and Mac)
system software
System Software
  • The operating system controls:
    • communication with peripherals.
    • the coordination of concurrent processing.
    • memory management.
    • the monitoring of resources and security.
    • the management of programs and data.
  • Utility software controls tasks such as:
    • repairing damaged files.
    • making it easy for users to copy files from one storage device to another.
    • translating files so different software can read them.
    • guarding against viruses.
application software
Application software
  • Programs that can be used to create different products.
  • Word, Excel, PowerPoint, ……
courseware
Courseware
  • Educational application programs that can be used directly for teaching and learning to achieve instructional goals.