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North America Washington: Columbia River, Chehalis River, Puget Sound Puget Sound. Basin Stream Order Stream Habitat. Community ecology of stream fishes: Patterns and processes in Pacific Northwest species richness. Introduction to the taxa. Fundamental questions:.

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community ecology of stream fishes patterns and processes in pacific northwest species richness
North America

Washington: Columbia River, Chehalis River, Puget Sound

Puget Sound

Basin

Stream Order

Stream Habitat

Community ecology of stream fishes:Patterns and processes in Pacific Northwest species richness

Introduction to the taxa

fundamental questions
Fundamental questions:
  • What determines the number of species in a given area or body of water?
  • Is diversity a function of current or past conditions?
fish diversity in the pacific northwest
Fish Diversity in the Pacific Northwest

Acipenseridae

Petromyzontidae

White sturgeon

Pacific Lamprey

Lamprey are typically semelparous and some are anadromous.

Sturgeons are very long-lived, large, iteroparous, and often anadromous

slide4

Osmeridae

Catostomidae

common sucker

longfin smelt

Small, short-lived, often anadromous or lacustrine

Intermediate in size, freshwater,

rainbow smelt

longnose sucker

cyprinidae minnows
Cyprinidae (minnows)

Peamouth chub (Mylocheilus caurinus)

Northern pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus oregonensis)

Speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus)

Longnose dace(Rhinichthys cataractae)

slide6

Cottidae

sculpins

patterns
Patterns

5

40

19

Primary freshwater fish species in North America (i.e., those of a freshwater evolutionary lineage)

112

260

110

55

patterns9
Patterns

North

South

Source: Hocutt and Wiley 1996

patterns and processes
Patterns and Processes
  • Stikine River 27 spp.
  • Nass River 27 spp.
  • Skeena River 32 spp.
  • Fraser River 39 spp.

Colonization:

Up from the south (Columbia Refuge)

Down from the north (Bering Refuge)

Columbia River 45 spp.

patterns and processes11
Patterns and Processes

Pleistocene glaciation 50-10,000 ybp, Lake Missoula, and area it flooded

patterns and processes12

4

6

8

14

Patterns and Processes

Washington

Natives:

15 families; 47 spp.

Exotics:

9 families; 29 spp.

Distribution of primary freshwater species in Washington

patterns and processes14
Patterns and Processes
  • Stream Order Traits
  • Gradient
  • Habitat volume
  • Complexity (predator refuge?)
  • Temperature regime
  • Disturbance frequency
  • Prey diversity
  • Biotic interaction
  • Sedimentation
  • Structure
slide15

Within a given river system, what determines the:

  • number of species

?

Biotic responses

Stream order

slide16

Number of Species by Stream Order:

Matamek River, Quebec

(Morin and Naiman 1990)

20

2

R

= 0.77

15

Number of

Species

10

5

0

0

5

Stream Order

slide17

Within a given river system, what determines the:

  • number of species
  • biomass

?

Biotic responses

Stream order

slide19

Within a given river system, what determines the:

  • number of species
  • biomass
  • production

?

Biotic responses

Stream order

slide20

Production and Stream Order: Matamek River

Quebec (Morin and Naiman 1990)

60

50

40

Production (kg/ha/yr)

30

20

10

0

0

2

4

6

8

Stream Order

stream order and life history and community attributes
Low Order Streams

Life History Patterns

short lifespan

rapid dispersal

high reproductive rate

small adult size

Community Characteristics

Simple trophic links

Variable population size

High Order Rivers

Life History Patterns

Long lifespan

Dispersal less critical

High reproductive rate

Large adult size

Community Characteristics

Complex trophic links

Stable population size

Diverse reproductive stratagies

Stream order and life history and community attributes
  • Controlled by:
  • harsh winter conditions
  • limited summer growth
  • Controlled by:
  • Predation and competition
percent frequencies of 482 fish species by trophic preference and stream size category
Percent frequencies of 482 fish species by trophic preference and stream size category

Goldstein and Meador 2004, Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 133:971-983

slide23
Percent frequencies of 363 classification of species by reproductive strategy and stream size category

Goldstein and Meador 2004, Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 133:971-983

slide24

What determines biomass and diversity within a given stream? Habitat features?

Habitat Unit Traits

Depth, volume, temperature, complexity, disturbance, prey, predators, sedimentation, structure

Riffles n = 6

Glides n = 7

Pools n = 11

lamprey

trout (YOY)

2%

5%

trout (YOY)

trout (YOY)

7%

cutthroat

3%

10%

lamprey

Cottus sp.

14%

coho

35%

11%

coho

6%

lamprey

15%

Cottus sp.

73%

Cottus sp.

steelhead

95%

24%

Data: David Lonzarich

Big Beef Creek

slide25

Stream fishes use available habitat selectively.

Coho salmon tend to occupy slow, deep water (pools).

Healy and Lonzarich 2000

slide26

Habitat use patterns vary among salmonids and other fishes, reflecting choice and competition

Roni 2002

slide27

World-wide, the distribution of stream production for salmonids is very skewed.

High production results more from growth than density, and more from chemistry and temperature than habitat and substrate. Coastal NW streams are not highly productive.

Bisson and Bilby 1998

Bisson and Bilby 1998

slide28

Estimates of biomass and density of trout and char in western Oregon, Washington, and California are generally low.

Platts and McHenry 1988

percent frequencies of substrate by stream category for 426 north american streams
Percent frequencies of substrate by stream category for 426 North American streams

Goldstein and Meador 2004, Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 133:971-983