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CHAPTER 30. THE DEVELOPING WORLD SINCE 1945. The Future of the Developing World. For a long time the developing world after World War II was seen as one in which Marxism or some form of socialism would be particularly applicable and successful. . Jettisoning Capitalism.

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chapter 30
the future of the developing world
The Future of the Developing World
  • For a long time the developing world after World War II was seen as one in which Marxism or some form of socialism would be particularly applicable and successful.
jettisoning capitalism
Jettisoning Capitalism
  • Free enterprise and free trade capitalism or the stigma of imperialism and decolonization led many to jettison capitalism as well.
  • Promised a more purposeful and scientific program.
  • Could balance the needs of a poor population with the needs to industrialize rapidly to catch up to the rest of the world.
western europe s socialism
Western Europe’s Socialism
  • Even Western Europe caught the fever.
  • Began a whole series of government-initiated social welfare programs.
  • Could free enterprise capitalism survive?
confrontation in east asia
Confrontation in East Asia
  • In East Asia there was a kind of confrontation that would decide this.
  • China, which after 1949 was among the most active communist systems, confronted a new Asian-style capitalism just taking root in U.S. Occupation-managed Japan.
economic paradigm
Economic Paradigm
  • This form of capitalism put business and the government in partnership.
  • It become the paradigm for the new fast-growth economies that spread from Japan to the "Four Tigers" of the Pacific Rim.
    • South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore.
muslim fundamentalism
Muslim Fundamentalism
  • Another alternative to Western liberal secular models.
  • Its power was first demonstrated in the Ayatollah Khomeini's overthrow of the Shah of Iran.
  • Fundamentalist Islam quickly became a strong political current, especially in the Mideast.
revolutions contemplated
Revolutions Contemplated
  • The revolutions that were fought in China to gain a communist state were contemplated enthusiastically by dozens of nations in
    • Africa
    • The Middle East
    • South and Southeast Asia
    • Latin America.
optimism was unrealistic
Optimism was Unrealistic
  • Disappointing patterns became widespread
    • internal ethnic or tribal division
    • failed economic plans
    • military coups.
shortcomings appeared
Shortcomings Appeared
  • Gradually, the shortcomings of ideological panaceas became apparent.
  • Observers have come to appreciate the magnitude of the problems facing most of the so-called Third World.
unrealistic expectations
Unrealistic Expectations
  • Remember that the rise of rich and powerful European states had taken centuries to develop.
  • Expecting tribal societies to transform themselves into modern nations within a generation was clearly unrealistic.
population explosions
Population Explosions
  • Many Third World societies are experiencing population explosions that are creating enormous stresses.
population stresses
Population Stresses
  • Any country that doubles its population in twenty-five years has to provide enormous increases just to maintain existing living standards
    • food supply
    • education budgets
    • job creation
    • medical care.
the cold war rivalry
The Cold War Rivalry
  • The post-World War II history of developing nations involves not just the choice of economic systems.
  • There was also a Cold War in which the U.S. and U.S.S.R. for almost fifty years tried to extend their respective influences politically and militarily.
the cold war effects
The Cold War Effects
  • This rivalry influenced virtually every diplomatic and political decision.
  • No developing country could avoid being deeply affected by this bipolar conflict.
  • Wars were fought in Korea, Vietnam, and Afghanistan.
collapse of the soviet union
Collapse of the Soviet Union
  • After the collapse, the major powers are no longer so quick to intervene in developing areas.
  • This leaves countries freer to indulge their own quarrels, often at the expense of both world order and the innocent civilians caught in these wars.
dangerous confrontations
Dangerous Confrontations
  • Major-power arms exports have given a decidedly military character to the Third World.
  • Religious and ethnic confrontations are becoming uglier and more dangerous all the time from Kashmir to East Timor to Chechnya to the Balkans.
you should understand
  • Mao Tse-tung's victory in China and the changes made under Communist rule.
  • The policy directions taken by the post-Mao leadership
you should understand20
  • The new power balance made possible by opening relations and trade with the United States and the rest of the world.
  • The political and economic connections in Southeast Asia that link it to the Pacific Rim.
you should understand21
  • The course of Indian politics following independence and partition.
  • The realignments in the Middle East accompanying the Arab-Israeli conflict and the rise of Islamic fundamentalism in the post-Cold War era.
you should undest and
  • The process of creation of new nations in Africa and their subsequent problems.
  • The problems of Latin America and its relationship with the United States.