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Alcoholism. Who is susceptible and why?. Bio/Psycho/Social Model. 1) Individual who responds to alcohol in a certain way. Positive reward. 2) Personality characteristics that encourage use. Impulsiveness. 3) Member of social group where A) pressure to drink. College Fraternity.

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alcoholism

Alcoholism

Who is susceptible and why?

bio psycho social model
Bio/Psycho/Social Model
  • 1) Individual who responds to alcohol in a certain way. Positive reward.
  • 2) Personality characteristics that encourage use. Impulsiveness.
  • 3) Member of social group where
    • A) pressure to drink. College Fraternity.
    • B) confusion over drinking ground rules.

Drink with meals or drink to get drunk?

physiological factors
Physiological factors
  • Biological susceptibility
  • Genetic evidence
  • Family history
  • Children of alcoholics (COA)
  • If father alcoholic,
  • 25% sons affected
  • 5-10% of daughters
genetic evidence
Genetic evidence
  • Twin studies
  • MZ 100% genes
  • DZ 50% genes
  • Reared together
  • Alcoholism in
  • 55% MZ twins
  • 28% DZ twins
adoption studies
Adoption studies
  • Original studies done in Denmark and Sweden.
  • Child adopted out.
  • Father alcoholic:
  • 18% sons affected.
  • Father non-alcoholic:
  • 5% sons affected.
  • Daughters less affected.
males particularly susceptible
Males particularly susceptible
  • Male limited. TYPE II alcoholism.
  • More severe, early onset.
  • Many negative consequences.
  • Trouble with law, at school, on job.
  • Environment plays less of a role but can lessen the severity.
  • Adopted COA’s did better than those raised with alcoholic parent.
milieu limited type 1
Milieu limited. TYPE 1
  • All women and 75% of men.
  • Less severe, later onset.
  • May not be treated.
  • Personality factors important.
    • Reward seekers. Psych dependence.
  • Environment plays key role.
  • Family and social groups.
  • Intoxication as recreation.
  • Good time depends on drinking.
what is inherited
What is inherited?
  • High initial tolerance.
  • Different rate of metabolism.
  • Alcohol -> acetaldehyde ->

acetate -> CO2 and H20

  • COA’s higher levels of acetaldehyde.
  • Metabolize alcohol quicker.
  • Hence higher tolerance
acetaldehyde effects
Acetaldehyde effects
  • Acetaldehyde may combine with brain chemicals to give opiate-like high
  • Acetaldehyde also toxic to liver and heart.
  • Medical complications
brain response to novelty
Brain response to novelty
  • Brain waves to novel stimuli.
  • P3 waves.
  • Less reaction in alcoholics.
  • And in COA’s before start drinking.
  • Need more stimulation?
psychological characteristics
Psychological characteristics
  • Related to biology?
  • Reward seeking.
  • Impulsive.
  • Easily bored.
  • Risk takers
  • Gregarious
  • Push the limits
  • Act out
social factors
Social factors
  • Alcoholism high in some cultures:

Americans, Swiss, Irish, Poles.

Low in others:

Chinese, Greeks,

Orthodox Jews

alcoholism is low in cultures where
Alcoholism is low in cultures where
  • Children learn alcohol is a beverage.
  • Served in dilute forms.
  • Abstain okay.
  • Parents model moderate drinking
  • Getting drunk not seen as comical.
  • Everyone knows ground rules.
alcoholism is higher in cultures where
Alcoholism is higher in cultures where
  • No ground rules.
  • Mixed messages from different individuals and groups.

Getting drunk okay? Funny?

  • Heavy drinking is encouraged.
  • Drinking a sign of masculinity or adulthood.
media images of alcohol
Media images of alcohol
  • Ireland has highest heavy drinking rates in Europe.
  • Youth bombarded with alcohol ads.
  • Have begun to restrict advertising.
  • Change the culture.
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