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Lecture 7 b Soil Water – Part 2. Source: Dept of Agriculture Bulletin 462, 1960. Water Movement Movie University of Arizona. Be prepared for exam questions from this movie!. Describe in your own words what happens to the water in the diagram below. Water. A horizon - Air Dry. Soil. Answer.

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lecture 7 b soil water part 2
Lecture 7 bSoil Water – Part 2

Source: Dept of Agriculture Bulletin 462, 1960

water movement movie university of arizona

Water Movement MovieUniversity of Arizona

Be prepared for exam questions from this movie!

describe in your own words what happens to the water in the diagram below
Describe in your own words what happens to the water in the diagram below.

Water

A horizon - Air Dry

Soil

answer
Answer
  • The water moves sideways and downward at the same rate. This is because of adhesion and cohesion.
  • Would the movement be different if the soil was saturated?
    • Yes. The movement would mainly be downward due to gravity.

WATER

water movement
Water Movement

Water

Loam

Sand

water movement1
Water Movement
  • Water front does not move into sand until loam is saturated

Water

Loam

t 1

t 2

t3

t4

Sand

water movement2
Water Movement
  • Water front moves into clay upon contact with clay, but because it moves slow water builds up above the clay layer.

Water

loam

clay

summary points from water movement movie university of arizona
Summary Points from Water Movement Movie University of Arizona
  • 1)      Pore size is one of the most important fundamental properties affecting how water moves through soil. Larger pores as in sand conduct water more rapidly than smaller pores in clay.
  • 2)      The two forces that allow water to move through soil are gravitational forces and capillary forces. Capillary forces are greater in small pores than in large pores.
slide9
3)      Gravitational and capillary forces act simultaneously in soils. Capillary action involves two types of attractions, adhesion and cohesion. Adhesion is attraction of water molecules to solid surfaces; cohesion is the attraction of water molecules to each other. Gravity pulls water downward when the water is not held by capillary action. Thus gravity influences water in saturated soils.
  •  4)      Sandy soils contain larger pores than clay soils, but do not contain as much total pore space.
slide10
5)      Sandy soils do not contain as much water per unit volume of soil as clay soils.
  • 6)      Factors that affect water movement through soil include texture, structure, organic matter and bulk density. Any condition that affects soil pore size and shape will affect water movement.
  • 7)      Examples include compaction, tillage, decayed root channels and worm holes.
  •  8)      The rate and direction of water moving through soil is also affected by soil layers of different material. Abrupt changes in pore size from one layer to the next affect water movement. When fine soil overlies coarse soil, downward water movement will temporally stop at the fine coarse interface until the fine layer above the interface is nearly saturation.
slide11
9)      When a coarse soil is above a fine soil, the rapid water movement in the coarse soil is greater than through the clay and water will build up above the fine layer as the water front comes in contact with the fine layer. This can result in a build up of a perched water table if water continues to enter the coarse layer.
calculating soil moisture
Calculating Soil Moisture
  • Gravimetric
    • The mass of water in a given mass of soil (kg of water per kg of soil).
  • Pw = Percent water by weight or
  • Pw = wt. water ÷ wt. O.D. soil
  • Weight of water = (wet soil)-(O.D.Soil)
  • Pw = (weight of wet soil – weight of oven dry soil) X 100
  • weight of oven dry soil
calculating soil moisture1
Calculating Soil Moisture
  • Volumetric
    • The volume of water in a given volume of soil (m3 of water per m3 of soil)
    • Pv = Vol H20 ml ÷ Vol soil ml
  • Pv = Percent volumetric
  • Pv = Pw X bulk density
calculating soil moisture2
Calculating Soil Moisture
  • Inches of water per depth of soil …. or how many inches of water are in a specified depth of soil.
  • Pv = percent water by vol.
  • Inches water = Pv x (depth of soil) …
  • or ..
  • depth of soil wetted = (inches of water) ÷ Pv
  • Inches of water can be inches of rain added
what determines plant available water capacity awc awc fc wp
What determines Plant Available Water Capacity (AWC)AWC = FC-WP
  • Rooting depth a) type of plants, b) growing stage
  • Depth of root limiting layers
  • Infiltration vs. runoff (more water entering soil, more will be stored )
  • Amount of coarse fragments (gravel)
  • Soil Texture - size and amount of pores silt loam has greatest AWC, followed by loam, clay loam silty clay loam
slide16
Soil Water Classification – Available Water Capacity (AWC) = Water Between Field Capacity and Wilt Point.

3.8-2.4=1.6 = clay

SL = 2.2-0.6 = 1.6

awc by texture
AWC by Texture
  • Texture Available Water Capacity in Inches/Foot of Depth
  • Coarse Sands 0.25 - 0.75
  • Fine Sands 0.75 - 1.00
  • Loamy Sand 1.10 - 1.20
  • Sandy Loams 1.25 - 1.40
  • Fine Sandy Loam 1.50 - 2.00
  • Loam 1.80- 2.00
  • Silt Loams 2.00 - 2.50
  • Clay Loam 1.80-2.00
  • Silty Clay Loams 1.80 - 2.00
  • Silty Clay 1.50 - 1.70
  • Clay 1.20 - 1.50
  • DYAD= a soil with 2 feet of ls over 2 feet of silt loam has how many inches of AWC if 4 feet of soil is at field capacity?
sample problem
Sample Problem
  • A a soil with 2 feet of loamy sand over 2 feet of silt loam has how many inches of AWC if all 4 feet is at field capacity?

from table – ls = 1.2”/ft and sil = 2.5”/ft.

  • (2 ft x 1.2”/ft) + (2ft x 2.5”/ft) =
    • 2.4 “ + 5.0” =
    • 7.4 “ of AWC in 4 feet of soil
sample problem gravimetric determination of soil water
Sample Problem: Gravimetric determination of soil water
  • Wt. of cylinder + oven dry soil = 240g
  • wt. cylinder at field capacity =350g
  • wt cylinder at wilt point = 300
  • Wt cylinder on June 1 = 320
  • volume cylinder = 200 cc
    • Or Wet------------FC----------field June 1----wp----------air dry

350 320 300

  • BD = 240/200 = 1.2 g/cc
  • % water by wt. at FC = ((350-240)÷240)x100 = 45.8%
  • % water by vol at FC = ((350-240) ÷200) x100 = 55%
  • and (%water by wt.) X (BD) = % water by Vol
  • Or45.8 X 1.2 = 55%
  • % water by vol at WP = ((300-240) ÷200) x100 = 30%
awc fc wp 0 33 bar 15 bar
AWC = FC - WP -0.33 bar - ( - 15 bar)

% water by vol at Field Capacity = %FC = 55%

%water by vol at Wilt Point = % WP = 30%

% FC - % WP = % AWC

55%-30% = 25% & ( % water x inch soil = inch water)

For 4 feet of soil 25% AWC means that .25 x 48 inch.

= 12 inches of water stored in 48 inches of soil.

0

4 ft.

= 12 inches of water available/ 4 feet

rainfall infiltration
Rainfall Infiltration
  • How deep will a 1 inch rainfall infiltrate the soil on June 1?
  • Soil will be wet to field capacity than water moves deeper.
  • And (% water vol) x (soil depth) = inches of water or
  • Inches of soil = amount of water ÷ %water vol
  • % water by vol between June 1 & and Field Capacity =
  • June 1 = 320g; Field Capacity = 350g soil volume = 200 cc
    • Or Wet------------FC----------field June 1----wp----------air dry

350 320 300

  • And (350-320)÷200 = 0.15
  • Or 1”rain/.15 = 6.67 inches of soil is the depth of soil wetting
  • Overall formulae for depth of soil wetting =

in. of soil wetted = (in. of rain) ÷[ (%water on June 1) – (Field Cap %)]

world water total
World Water Total
  • 97.2 % Ocean
  • 2.8 % Fresh
    • 2.15 % glaciers
    • 0.65 % ground water
    • 0.0001 % streams
    • 0.009 % lakes
    • 0.008 % seas
    • 0.005 % soil
    • 0.001 % atmosphere
hydrologic cycle is driven by the energy from the sun evaporation
Hydrologic Cycle is driven by the energy from the sun-Evaporation
  • Water is heated by the sun
  • Surface molecules become sufficiently energized to break free of the attractive force binding them together
  • Water molecules evaporate and rise as invisible vapor into the atmosphere
hydrologic cycle transpiration
Hydrologic Cycle -Transpiration
  • Water vapor emitted from plant leaves
  • Actively growing plants transpire 5 to 10 times as much water as they can hold at once
  • These water particles then collect and form clouds
hydrologic cycle
Hydrologic Cycle
  • Evaporation
  • Transpiration
  • Soil Water Storage determines ground water recharge
water budget
Water Budget

http://wwwcimis.water.ca.gov/cimis/infoIrrBudget.jsp

water balance diagram

Evapotranspiration

Potential ET

Soil moisture

utilization

Actual ET

Water amount

Runoff

Recharge

Recharge

Precipitation

Ap May June July Aug. Sept Oct

Water Balance Diagram

ET > Precip = Soil moisture utilization

Precip > ET = Recharge, surplus, and runoff

slide29

The End

Range of % of the total AWC – from 0 to 85%