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Web Project Management. INBS 540 DFA – Winter 2008 Barbaros Ozdogan Bozdogan@mercy.edu. Course Requirements. Class Participation – 10% Online Discussion – 20% Assignments – 30% Course Project – 40%. What we’ll learn…. What Project Management for the Web is What the Project Manager does

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Web project management

Web Project Management

INBS 540 DFA – Winter 2008

Barbaros Ozdogan


Course requirements
Course Requirements

  • Class Participation – 10%

  • Online Discussion – 20%

  • Assignments – 30%

  • Course Project – 40%

What we ll learn
What we’ll learn…

  • What Project Management for the Web is

  • What the Project Manager does

  • Stages in a full website development project (you can apply these to any smaller project too)

  • Deliverables for each stage

  • Keys to Success, Obstacles to avoid

  • Key documentation to make life easier

What is a project
What is a “project”?

A project is a sequence of :

- Unique,

- Complex

- Connected activities

- that has a beginning and an end (a deadline)

- and is carried out to meet a given goal within budget, and according to specification.

Wysocki, Beck, and Crane

Comments on the definition 1 2
Comments on the definition(1/2)

  • An activity is a chunk of work

  • A project has never happened before, and is never likely to happen again under the same conditions

  • While some tasks may overlap, many tasks are dependent on the completion of other tasks.

  • The development of a system represents a goal.

Comments on the definition 2 2
Comments on the definition (2/2)

  • Projects have a completion date. The deadline is beyond the control of anybody working on the project.

  • Projects have resource limits

  • The System must satisfy the business, user, and management expectations and specifications.

A pert chart or network diagram
A Pert Chart, or Network Diagram




This diagram shows the necessary sequence and interdependencies of activities

to achieve the project objective.







/Get Responses

ID Target


Develop Draft


Review &













Develop Data









Accountable Person

Activity Number



Test Data



What is a project1
What is a “project”?

  • SIMPLY, a project is a body of WORK accomplished through TIME, by specific people (and/or RESOURCES), that accomplishes a unique RESULT


Some quick vocabulary
Some Quick Vocabulary:

  • The PM’s word for WORK is “SCOPE”

  • TIME means you have a “SCHEDULE”

  • RESOURCES have a COST, from the client’s “BUDGET”

  • In a successful project, the RESULT is CLIENT SATISFACTION

In other words
In other words…

  • Scope = Schedule + Budget …leads to Client Satisfaction 

  • The PM’s goal is to complete the project ON-SCHEDULE and WITHIN BUDGET

Scope schedule budget
Scope = Schedule + Budget =

  • One of the biggest challenges is managing the Scope of a project:Clients often request more features, Even little requests can creep up on you…This is called “Feature Creep” or…

    …you guessed it: “Scope Creep” 

What does a project manager do
What does a Project Manager do?

  • Manages the Scope, Schedule, and Budget of a Project

  • Facilitates communication with the Client and the Development Team

  • “Protects” the team from the client (& vice versa)

  • Takes responsibility for successful delivery

What is project management
What is Project Management?

  • For any systems development project, effective project management is necessary to ensure that

    • the project meets the deadline,

    • is developed within an acceptable budget,

    • and fulfills expectations and specifications.

      • Project management is the process of defining, planning, directing, monitoring, and controlling the development of an acceptable system at a minimum cost within a specified time frame.

Project management
Project Management

Objectives of Project Management:

To effectively manage time, costs, and resources while providing high-quality solutions and deliverables.

  • Scope and Objectives What?

  • Project Approach How?

  • Work Effort and Schedule When?

  • Organization and Staffing Who?

  • Professional Fees How Much?

  • Key Risks and Action Plan What Can Go Wrong?

Project management1
Project Management

  • Scope and Objectives (What?) - What kind of engagement is it and what are the desired business outcomes of the engagement?

  • Approach to Completing Work and Key Deliverables (How?) - What structured approaches, methodologies, and tools will be employed to get the work done, what is the sequence of the work, and what are the key deliverables the work will produce?

  • Work Effort and Schedule(When?)- What is the estimated workday effort by skillset required to complete the work and what is the timeframe?

  • Organization and Staffing (Who?) - How will the members be organized and what are the different roles and responsibilities?

  • Professional Fees and Out-of-Pocket Expenses(How much?) - Is the engagement fixed fee or time and materials, what is the billing schedule, and what out-of-pocket expenses will the client incur?

  • Key Risks and Action Plan(What can go wrong?)- What are the key engagement risks that could impede the desired outcome and what are the mitigating strategies to be employed?

The project management process
The Project Management Process:

“planning the work and then working the plan”

1-Define the



Clear definition of the deliverables between the customer and project manager

Divide and sub-divide the project into manageable pieces.






Define the specific activities and place them in order of execution.



3-Sequence the



Create a network diagram that has an activity number and a responsible person.

4-Develop a



A roadmap to ensure that the project is completed on time and within budget.

5-Make a

Time & Cost

Estimate for

each Activity

6-Develop a

baseline plan

Estimate a cost and time for each activity

Project management2
Project Management

  • Different organizations take different approaches to project management.

    • One approach is to appoint a project manager from the ranks of the team (once it has been formed).

      • This approach is a result of the self-directed team paradigm.

  • But many organizations have found that successful project managers apply a unique body of knowledge and skills that must be learned.

    • These organizations tend to hire and/or develop professional project managers who are assigned to one or more projects at any given time.

How the pm fits in
How the PM fits in

  • Different organizations have different ways of working

  • “Team” of 1: you’re the PM, designer & developer

  • Team of many: you have dedicated designers & programmers

Types of web projects
Types of Web Projects

  • Design & develop a complete web site

  • Redesign an existing web site

  • Add functionality to a web site

    • registered user’s area with login

    • E-commerce functionality

    • Add new section of content

    • Your ideas?

Stages of a web project
Stages of a Web Project

  • Strategy – what are the business goals? What is the project plan?

  • Discovery – what does the team need to know to create the solution?

  • Design – design the architecture & look of the web site; create the graphics

  • Technical Build – create the backend and program the front-end

  • QA – make sure everything works as it should

  • Launch – get client sign-off and go live! Review the project for lessons learned

  • Maintenance – keeping the site fresh

Strategy phase
Strategy Phase

  • This was your Marketing class

  • Establish the business goals for the web project

Definition phase
Definition Phase

  • Starts with a Kickoff Meeting, with people from each group present

  • Design, Technical, and QA teams need to learn about the client & business goals

  • Should lead to documents such as:Creative Brief, User Experience, Functional Requirements, Technical Requirements

Project definition
Project Definition

  • PM creates a Project Plan, including Schedule & Budget

  • This phase defines the Scope of the Project

Design phase
Design Phase

  • Information Architecture, Graphic Design, and Content Development (typically, copy writing and/or merchandising)

  • May also include the Technical Design(but we’ll talk about that in the Technical Phase)

  • The PM needs to ensure each group is in close communication – What if you design something that can’t be built in the time/budget alloted?

Information architecture
Information Architecture

  • “IA” is the structure of the web site – what goes where, how they connect, and how usable the site will be

  • Needs a Creative Brief or User Experience document to work from

  • Creates User Scenarios, Site Map, and Wireframes (or “schematics”)

The value of ia
The Value of IA

  • While discovery documents are verbal descriptions of the project’s goals, the Site Map and Wireframes (aka Schematics) are a visual presentation of the web site

  • These “blueprints” are useful to client, PM, designers, technical team, QA team

  • A tangible document that gives everyone a common direction

Added value of ia usability
Added Value of IA - Usability

  • Works with Usability Principles & Usability Testing to create a design that helps site visitors accomplish their tasks

  • Happy visitors = achieving business goals

Graphic design purpose
Graphic Design - Purpose

  • Graphic designers create the “look & feel” of the site

  • Ensure that the site supports the client’s brand identity & image

  • Work closely with IA’s to make the site easy to use 

Graphic design process
Graphic Design - Process

  • Typically presents 2-3 design directions to the client (aka design “comps” or compositions)

  • May take 2-3 revision cycles to gain client’s sign-off – you need to manage this!

  • Produce all the graphics for the site build (graphic production stage)

  • May require a Style Guide, instructions on future additions to the site

Technical phase
Technical Phase

  • Includes server configuration, database design, programming, and html coding

  • Technicians, DBAs, Programmers, and Sitebuilders

  • Works with IA to develop system’s Inputs & Outputs, and usable interactivity

Technical documentation
Technical documentation

  • Technical Requirements are based on User Experience or Functional Requirements

  • Used to communicate with programmers, DBA, etc.

  • May need Process Flows from IA

Qa phase quality assurance
QA Phase – “Quality Assurance”

  • Nothing “works” until QA says it does

  • QA creates a Test Plan from the User Experience and the IA

  • Uses a QA Issue Log to document issues/bugs/flaws to the team

  • PM needs to use QA to ensure a quality product

Launch phase
Launch Phase

  • Time to get client sign-off on the project

  • Soft-launch

  • Full launch often coordinated with a marketing campaign, press releases, etc.

  • Your team has worked hard to get here – time to throw a party!

  • …And don’t forget to get paid!

Site maintenance
Site Maintenance

  • One of the Web’s strengths is the ability to update a site quickly and often

  • Who will update the site?

  • Will they use hand-coded HTML? A full content-management system? A simple back-end tool? Remember this in your Project Plan!

The keys to successful projects

The Keys to Successful Projects

(and the pitfalls to avoid)

Successful project management implies
Successful Project Management Implies

The cooperative efforts of a team

The use of certain managerial techniques

The use of specialized communication software when the team is composed of distant partners

The use of a common language to communicate...

Causes of failed projects
Causes of Failed Projects

  • Failures and limited successes far outnumber successful systems. Why?

    • Many systems analysts and information technologists are unfamiliar with or undisciplined in the tools and techniques of systems analysis and design.

    • Many projects suffer from poor leadership and management.

      • Project mismanagement can sabotage the best application of the systems analysis and design methods.

Causes of Failed Projects

  • One of the most common causes of project failure is taking shortcuts through or around the methodology.

    • Project teams often take shortcuts for one or more of the following reasons:

      • The project gets behind schedule and the team wants to ‘catch up.’

      • The project is over budget and the team wants to make up costs by skipping methodology steps.

      • The team is not trained or skilled in some of the methodologies activities and requirements, so they skip them.

Causes of failed projects1
Causes of Failed Projects

  • Another common cause of project failures is poor expectations management.

    • All users and managers have expectations of the project.

    • Over time, these expectations change and takes the form of scope creep.

      • Scope creep is the unexpected growth of user expectations and business requirements for an information system as the project progresses.

    • Unfortunately, the schedule and budget are rarely modified at the same time.

      • The project manager is ultimately held accountable for the inevitable and unavoidable schedule and budget overruns.

      • The users' expectations of schedule and budget does not change as the scope changes.

Causes of failed projects2
Causes of Failed Projects

  • A similar problem is caused by feature creep.

    • Feature creep is the uncontrolled addition of technical features to a system under development without regards to schedule and budget.

      • Each unplanned feature, however impressive, adds time and costs to the overall schedule.

  • Cost overrun problems:

    • Many methodologies or project plans call for an unreasonably precise estimate of costs before the project begins.

    • Poor estimating techniques.

    • Schedule delays.

Causes of Failed Projects

  • Poor people management can also cause projects to fail.

  • Another cause of project failure is that the business is in a constant state of change.

    • If the project’s importance changes, or if the management and business reorganizes, all projects should be reassessed for compatibility with changes, and importance to the business.

Standard Project Problems

  • Lack of a particular competence, needed to achieve the goal, in the team members

  • Lack of an equipment or component

  • Technical solution not known

  • Individual lack of motivation to achieve project goal (the productivity of a workgroup seems to depend on how the group members see their own goals in relation to the goals of the organization)

  • Project member does not communicate his difficulties. (hope creep)

  • A task overrun the task deadline (work but no progress)

  • Conflicts between project members

  • Team member add features or functions to the deliverables...

Reasons for it project failure based on 1000 it managers standish group 1995
Reasons for IT Project Failure(based on 1000 IT managers, Standish Group 1995)

  • Incomplete requirements

  • Lack of user involvement

  • Lack of resources

  • Unrealistic expectations

  • Lack of executive support

  • Changing requirements and specifications

  • Lack of planning

  • Elimination of need for the project

  • Lack of IT management

  • Technology illiteracy

Summary how to carry out a project successfully
Summary:How to carry out a project successfully

  • Defining the scope of the project

  • Planning the Project

  • Implementing the plan (executing)

  • Controling and monitoring progress

  • Completing the project

The actions in project management the four c
The Actions in Project Management: The four C

  • Communicate

  • Coordinate

  • Cooperate

  • Control

Communicate and motivate
Communicate and Motivate

  • To generate a common desire to reach the objective

  • To transform the goal into reality

  • To provide a reward system coherent with project goals

Need to coordinate organize
Need to Coordinate (organize)

  • To avoid the dispersion of efforts (bad use of resources)

  • to define the task of each project participant

  • to have clear responsibility for the project and for each tasks right from the beginning

  • to plan the necessary resources in terms of manpower, competencies , equipment, finance, ….

Task of project control
Task of Project Control

  • Motivate participants

  • Control realization of tasks (budget, time, quality)

  • Project scheduling

  • Estimate consequences of incidents ( rescheduling,…)

To solve all the above problems we need a “talented” PROJECT MANAGER

  • This section provides an overview of the responsibilities of the project manager, the skills needed to successfully manage projects, and how these skills can be developed.

  • Responsibilities of the Project Manager

  • Skills of the Project Manager

  • Developing the Skills of a Project Manager

  • Approaches to Effective Delegation

  • Methods a Project Manager can Manage and Control Changes to the Project

    • To read more about talent read the attached presentation.PDF file.

Dozen rules for a project manager
Dozen Rules For A Project Manager PROJECT MANAGER

  • Understand the problems, opportunities, and expectations of a project manager.

  • Recognize that project teams will have conflicts, but this is a natural part of group development.

  • Understand who the stakeholders are and their agendas.

  • Realize that organizations are very political and use politics to your advantage.

  • Realize that project management is “leader intensive” but that you must be flexible.

  • Understand that project success is defined by 4 components: budget, schedule, performance criteria, and customer satisfaction.


  • 7) Realize that you must build a cohesive team by being a motivator, coach, cheerleader, peacemaker, and conflict resolver.

  • 8) Notice that you team will develop attitudes based on the emotions you exhibit-both positive and negative.

  • 9) Always ask “what-if” questions and avoid becoming comfortable with the status of the project.

  • 10) Don’t get bogged down in minutiae and lose site of the purpose of the project.

  • 11) Manage your time efficiently.

  • 12) Above all plan, plan, plan. “Failing to plan, is planning to fail”

The course project
The Course Project PROJECT MANAGER

  • Describe the project, list the phases & documentation students will deliver

  • Guidelines for choosing the project they want to do… scope requirements, if any

  • Discuss student ideas for their project, so they have an idea how to write their proposal