Rabies in south asia epidemiological investigations
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RABIES IN SOUTH ASIA - EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. C.K.Singh and B.S. Sandhu Rabies Research-cum-Diagnostic Laboratory, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University , Ludhiana , Punjab, INDIA rabiesck@gmail.com. Talking from highest prevalence of rabies in Eurasia.

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Rabies in south asia epidemiological investigations

RABIES IN SOUTH ASIA- EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS

C.K.Singh and B.S. Sandhu

Rabies Research-cum-Diagnostic Laboratory,

Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana , Punjab, INDIA

rabiesck@gmail.com


Talking from highest prevalence of rabies in eurasia
Talking from highest prevalence of rabies in Eurasia

  • More than 20,000 human deaths occur every year

  • 17.4 million humans are bitten by dogs in India every year

  • Over Rs. 1200 crores are spent annually on post bite vaccination assuming about half of the exposed do not get PET

  • Over 15 Crores is spent on PET in farm animals


The study
The Study

  • The study was conducted on brain tissues collected from a total of 356 animals including 231 dogs, 79 buffaloes and 46 cows.

  • The brain tissues of only those animals that were suspected to be suffering from rabies clinically were included in this study.


Rabies in south asia epidemiological investigations
Impression smear from hippocampus of a rabid dog showing magenta colored intracellular Negri body (arrow) in a neuron. Seller’s stain x875


Rabies in south asia epidemiological investigations
Section of Hippocampus of a rabid dog magenta colored intracellular Negri body (arrow) in a neuron. Seller’s stain x875showingintra-cytoplasmic eosinophilic Negri bodies ( arrows )in neurons. H&E x875


Incidence in animals
Incidence in animals magenta colored intracellular Negri body (arrow) in a neuron. Seller’s stain x875

  • SuspectedConfirmed

  • 356 201

  • 231 dogs 128 dogs

  • 79 buffaloes 44 buffaloes

  • 46 cows 29 cows


Initial signs of rabies
Initial Signs of Rabies magenta colored intracellular Negri body (arrow) in a neuron. Seller’s stain x875

  • Rabid Dogs

  • About half the rabid dogs go off feed & show change in behavior few exhibit fever. Ocular involvement is rare.

  • Rabid Cows

  • Almost every rabid cow goes off feed and about half the rabid cows exhibit fever. Few rabid cows exhibit ocular involvement .

  • Rabid Buffaloes

  • Majority of rabid buffaloes go off feed and more than half exhibit fever. Majority of buffaloes show ocular involvement .


Most susceptible age sex
Most susceptible Age/Sex magenta colored intracellular Negri body (arrow) in a neuron. Seller’s stain x875

  • Incidence in higher in adult dogs (>3 Yrs.) and pups (<6 M). The incidence is minimum in 6 M to 3 Years dogs.

  • The higher incidence of rabies in male dogs is largely due to their gregarious wandering and furious nature especially during breeding season.


Signs symptoms dogs v s bovines
Signs & Symptoms - magenta colored intracellular Negri body (arrow) in a neuron. Seller’s stain x875Dogs v/s Bovines

  • Only 24 percent rabid dogs show hyper salivation that is characteristic for bovines. So, Veterinarian need not look for clinical hypersalivation while suspecting dog rabies.

  • Only 30 % rabid dogs show paralysis . Paralysis is not necessarily the end sign in dogs.


Signs symptoms dogs v s bovines1
Signs & Symptoms - magenta colored intracellular Negri body (arrow) in a neuron. Seller’s stain x875Dogs v/s Bovines

  • About half of the rabid dogs continue to recognize their owner

  • Most rabid cows and buffaloes fail to recognize their owners


Signs symptoms dogs v s bovines2
Signs & Symptoms - magenta colored intracellular Negri body (arrow) in a neuron. Seller’s stain x875Dogs v/s Bovines

  • More than half (61%) of all rabid animals show aggressive behavior. Majority of aggressive rabid dogs inflict bite wounds to humans and/or other animals.

  • Aggression of bovines is limited to inflicting trauma to themselves. No rabid bovine ever bites other animals and/or humans.


Bovines similarity bellowing in bovines
Bovines - Similarity magenta colored intracellular Negri body (arrow) in a neuron. Seller’s stain x875Bellowing in Bovines

  • Majority of both cows and buffaloes (66%) reveal prolonged and prominent fits of loud bellowing


Bovines differences drooling saliva 32 v s 86
Bovines - Differences magenta colored intracellular Negri body (arrow) in a neuron. Seller’s stain x875Drooling Saliva -32% v/s 86%

  • Drooling saliva is often reported as the characteristic feature in rabies in bovines

  • It was found that hyper salivation was exhibited by less than half (32%) of rabid buffaloes

  • However, hyper salivation was more commonly exhibited (86%) by rabid cows.


Bovines differences micturition in bovines
Bovines - Differences magenta colored intracellular Negri body (arrow) in a neuron. Seller’s stain x875Micturition in Bovines

  • Rabid Cows

  • Reveal frequent micturition

  • Rabid Buffaloes

  • Frequent micturition is not common in buffaloes


Month wise incidence
Month-wise Incidence magenta colored intracellular Negri body (arrow) in a neuron. Seller’s stain x875

  • Increased incidence in dogs was reported during January, February, July and November.

  • Increased incidence in buffaloes was observed during January to March

  • Increased incidence in cattle was observed during March, April, June, August, October and November


Major area of concern
Major Area of Concern magenta colored intracellular Negri body (arrow) in a neuron. Seller’s stain x875

  • 78% of owned rabid dogs were not vaccinated prophylactically.

  • There is high incidence of rabies in owned/community dogs.


Rabies in south asia epidemiological investigations

Merci magenta colored intracellular Negri body (arrow) in a neuron. Seller’s stain x875


Rabies in south asia epidemiological investigations

Characteristics of rabid dogs magenta colored intracellular Negri body (arrow) in a neuron. Seller’s stain x875


Rabies in south asia epidemiological investigations

Characteristics of rabid cows magenta colored intracellular Negri body (arrow) in a neuron. Seller’s stain x875


Rabies in south asia epidemiological investigations

Characteristics of rabid buffaloes magenta colored intracellular Negri body (arrow) in a neuron. Seller’s stain x875