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Initial Assessment and Management of Trauma

Initial Assessment and Management of Trauma

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Initial Assessment and Management of Trauma

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  1. Initial Assessment and Management of Trauma Temple College EMS Professions

  2. Introduction • Trauma • Leading killer from ages 1 to 44 • Up to one-third of deaths are preventable

  3. Introduction • Golden Hour • Time to reach operating room • NOT time for transport • NOT time in Emergency Department

  4. Introduction • EMS does NOT have a Golden Hour • EMS has a Platinum Ten Minutes

  5. Introduction • Patients in Golden Hour must be: • Recognized quickly • Transported to APPROPRIATE facility

  6. Introduction • Survival depends on assessment skills • Good assessment results from • An organized approach • Clearly defined priorities

  7. Size-Up • Safety • Scene • How does scene look? • How many patients? • Where are they? • Situation • Additional resources? • Critical vs non-critical patient?

  8. Initial Assessment (Primary Survey) • Find life threats • If life threat present, CORRECT IT! • If life threat can’t be corrected • Support ABCs • TRANSPORT!!

  9. Primary Survey With critical trauma you may never get beyond primary survey

  10. Airway with C-Spine Control • You don’t need a C-collar yet • Return head to neutral position • Stabilize without traction

  11. Airway with C-Spine Control • Noisy breathing is obstructed breathing • But all obstructed breathing is not noisy

  12. Airway with C-Spine Control • Anticipate airway problems with • Decreased level of consciousness • Head trauma • Facial trauma • Neck trauma • Upper chest trauma • Open, Clear, Maintain

  13. Breathing • Is air moving? • Is it moving adequately? • Is oxygen getting to the blood?

  14. Breathing • Look • Listen • Feel

  15. Breathing • Oxygenate immediately if: • Decreased level of consciousness • ? Shock • ? Severe hemorrhage • Chest pain • Chest trauma • Dyspnea • Respiratory distress

  16. Breathing If you think about giving oxygen, GIVE IT!!

  17. Breathing • Consider assisting ventilations if: • Respirations <12 • Respirations >24 • Tidal volume decreased • Respiratory effort increased

  18. Breathing If you can’t tell if ventilations are adequate, they aren’t!! If you are wondering whether or not to bag the patient, you should!!

  19. Breathing • If respirations compromised: • Expose chest • Inspect front and back • Palpate front and back • Auscultate front and back

  20. Circulation • Is heart beating? • Is there serious external bleeding? • Is the patient perfusing?

  21. Circulation • Does patient have radial pulse? • Absent radial = systolic BP < 80 • Does patient have carotid pulse? • Absent carotid = systolic BP < 60

  22. Circulation • No carotid pulse? • Extricate • CPR • Pneumatic Antishock Garment • Run!!!! • Survival rate from cardiac arrest secondary to blunt trauma is < 1%

  23. Circulation • Serious external bleeding? • Direct pressure (hand, bandage, PASG) • Tourniquet as last resort • All bleeding stops eventually!

  24. Circulation • Is patient in shock? • Cool, pale, moist skin = shock, until proven otherwise • Capillary refill > 2 sec = shock until proven otherwise • Restlessness, anxiety, combativeness = shock until proven otherwise

  25. Circulation • If possible internal hemorrhage, QUICKLY expose, palpate: • Abdomen • Pelvis • Thighs

  26. Disability (CNS Function) • Level of Consciousness = Best brain perfusion indicator • Use AVPU initially • Check pupils • The eyes are the window of the CNS

  27. Disability (CNS Function) Decreased LOC in trauma = Head injury until proven otherwise

  28. Expose and Examine • You can’t treat what you don’t find! • If you don’t look, you won’t see! • Remove ALL clothing from critical patients ASAP • Avoid delaying resuscitation while disrobing patient • Cover patient with blanket when finished

  29. The “Load and Go” Situations • Head injury with decreased LOC • Airway obstruction unrelieved by mechanical methods • Conditions resulting in inadequate breathing • Shock • Conditions that rapidly lead to shock • Tender, distended abdomen • Pelvic instability • Bilateral femur fractures • Traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest

  30. Initial Assessment A blood pressure or an exact respiratory or pulse rate is NOT necessary to tell that your patient is critical !!!!!

  31. Initial Assessment If the patient looks sick, he’s sick!!!

  32. Initial Resuscitation • Treat as you go! • Aggressively correct hypoxia and inadequate ventilation. • Control external blood loss.

  33. Initial Resuscitation • Immobilize C-spine (rigid collar) • Keep airway open • Oxygenate • Rapidly extricate to long board • Begin assisted ventilation with BVM • Expose • Apply and inflate PASG • Transport • Reassess and report in route • Consider requesting ALS intercept

  34. Initial Resuscitation Minimum Time On Scene Maximum Treatment In Route

  35. Detailed Exam (Secondary Survey) • History and Physical Exam • You WILL get here with MOST trauma patients • Perform ONLY after initial assessment is completed and life threats corrected • Do NOT hold critical patients in field for detailed exam

  36. Physical Exam • Stepwise, organized • Every patient, same way, every time • Superior to inferior; proximal to distal • Look--Listen--Feel

  37. History • Chief complaint • What PATIENT says problem is • Not necessarily what you see

  38. History • A = Allergies • M = Medications • P = Past medical history • L = Last oral intake • E = Events leading up to incident

  39. Definitive Field Care Performed ONLY on stable patients

  40. Definitive Field Care • Stable patients can receive attention for individual injuries before transport • Bandaging • Splinting • Reassess carefully for hidden problems • If patient becomes unstable at any time,TRANSPORT

  41. Reevaluation • Ventilation and perfusion status • Repeat vital signs • Continued stabilization of identified problems • Continued reassessment for unidentified problems

  42. PowerPoint Source • Slides for this presentation from Temple College EMS: http://www.templejc.edu/dept/ems/pages/powerpoint.html