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Javier López Leonés • Boeing Research and Technology Europe. REACT Project: Preliminary Set of Requirements for an AIDL. Trajectory Prediction (e.g., flight management system). Flight Intent. Flight Intent. Aircraft Intent. Aircraft Intent. Ground Predicted Trajectory. Airborne

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trajectory related information exchange

Trajectory Prediction (e.g., flight management system)

Flight Intent

Flight Intent

Aircraft Intent

Aircraft Intent

Ground

Predicted Trajectory

Airborne

Predicted Trajectory

Flight Intent Information

Aircraft Intent information

Predicted trajectory information

Trajectory Related Information Exchange

Airborne TP

Intent

Generation

Infrastructure

(1)

Trajectory

Computation

Infrastructure

(1)

Data COM Infrastructure

Intent

Generation

Infrastructure

(2)

Trajectory

Computation

Infrastructure

(2)

Ground TP

TP PROCESS 2 (e.g., arrival manager)

trajectory related information exchange3

Trajectory Prediction (e.g., flight management system)

Flight Intent

Flight Intent

Aircraft Intent

Aircraft Intent

Ground

Predicted Trajectory

Airborne

Predicted Trajectory

Flight Intent Information

Aircraft Intent information

Predicted trajectory information

Trajectory Related Information Exchange

Airborne TP

Intent

Generation

Infrastructure

(1)

Trajectory

Computation

Infrastructure

(1)

Data COM Infrastructure

Intent

Generation

Infrastructure

(2)

Trajectory

Computation

Infrastructure

(2)

Ground TP

TP PROCESS 2 (e.g., arrival manager)

react scope

Trajectory Prediction

Flight Intent

Aircraft Intent

Airborne

Predicted Trajectory

Intent

Generation

Infrastructure

Trajectory

Computation

Infrastructure

REACT Scope
slide5

What is the AIDL?

  • The Aircraft Intent Description Language (AIDL) is a formal language designed to describe aircraft intent information in a rigorous but flexible manner
  • AIDL comprises of an alphabet and a grammar (lexical and syntactical)
what is the aidl

Trajectory Prediction (Air or Ground)

Flight Intent

Intent

Generation

Infrastructure

Trajectory

Computation

Infrastructure

Aircraft Intent

Predicted Trajectory

Initial Conditions

AIDL

Airborne Automation System

?

Flight Plan

Actual aircraft state (position, speed, weight…)

Flight Commands & Guidance Modes

Tactical Amendments to Flight Plan

Actual Trajectory

Pilot

Aircraft

Environmental Conditions

What is the AIDL?

Trajectory Predictor (TP)

AT or ABOVE FL290

Real World

slide7

What is the AIDL?

  • The Aircraft Intent Description Language (AIDL) is a formal language designed to describe aircraft intent information in a rigorous but flexible manner
  • AIDL comprises of an alphabet and a grammar (lexical and syntactical)
  • AIDL alphabet contains a set of instructions, which define all the possible ways in which different TPs model flight commands and guidance modes in ATM
  • Lexical grammar contains a set of rules (lexicon) to define valid simultaneous combination of the instructions to express elemental behaviors of the aircraft (operations)
  • Syntactical grammar contains a set of rules (syntax) to define valid sequential combination of instructions to express the sequence of operations that give rise to the trajectory
react objectives
REACT Objectives
  • Eliciting requirements for a common AIDL that can support trajectory synchronization in future Trajectory-Based Operations (TBO)
  • This common AIDL has to
    • be application independent
    • serve to encode aircraft intent information for both air or ground trajectory-based automation systems
    • support air-air, air-ground and ground-ground interoperability
    • cover any level of detail demanded by trajectory-based applications
    • serve to express the input to any trajectory computation infrastructure in ATM
  • The AIDL shall contain formal / mathematical structures to define all the possible ways in which different TPs model flight commands / guidance modes and standard procedures in ATM ( the instructions )
react so far
REACT so far…
  • Elicitation of requirements for a common AIDL :
    • Variety of stakeholders approached: ATM industry, FMS manufacturers, airlines and developers of automation tools for future trajectory-based concepts
    • Requirements on how each of these stakeholders internally model aircraft intent information in their systems: specific application-driven Aircraft Intent Description Model (AIDM)
    • Understand the commonalities among these systems in terms of aircraft intent description
  • The AIDL shall comply with all the requirements identified during the elicitation process: AIDL is the superset of the AIDMs identified
contributors to react
ATM INDUSTRY

FDPS

INDRA - FDPS TP

THALES - EUROCAT-E TP

SELEX SI – CoFlight

ASA - EUROCAT-X TP

Lockheed Martin - ERAM

ATM Tools

ASA - Flight Plan Conflict Function

ASA - MAESTRO AMAN

NATS - iFACTS

BARCO - OSYRIS AMAN

Flight Planning Tools

EMIRATES - Flight Planning

BRITISH AIRWAYS - Flight Planning

QANTAS - Flight Planning

VIRGIN BLUE - Flight Planning

Contributors to REACT

ATM AUTOMATION

  • Future Automation
    • EUROCONTROL - TMA 2010+
    • LVNL - SARA TP
    • NASA AMES, L3 COMMUNICATIONS - CTAS TP
    • NASA LaRC - 4D FMS
  • Advanced APMs
    • BOEING R&TE, Eurocontrol - BADA 4.0

FMS INDUSTRY

  • FMS TP and Guidance
    • GE AVIATION – FMS TP
    • HONEYWELL – FMS TP
  • Specific FMS Functions
    • GE AVIATION - Altitude Planning
    • GE AVIATION - FMS RTA

EUROCONTROL

    • TMA 2010+, FASTI, Datalink User Group, Flight Object Group, CFMU, Surface Movement, Military 
elicitation process methodology i

Trajectory Prediction

Flight Intent

Aircraft Intent

Airborne

Predicted Trajectory

Intent

Generation

Infrastructure

Trajectory

Computation

Infrastructure

Elicitation Process Methodology (I)

Flow-down aircraft intent generation capabilities

Flow-up trajectory computation capabilities

elicitation process methodology ii top down

Trajectory Prediction

Flight Intent

Aircraft Intent

Airborne

Predicted Trajectory

Elicitation Process Methodology (II) – Top Down

Intent

Generation

Infrastructure

Trajectory

Computation

Infrastructure

Flow-down aircraft intent generation capabilities

Flow-up trajectory computation capabilities

elicitation process methodology ii top down13

Aircraft Intent Generation Process

    • Route Conversion
    • Path Initialization
    • Constraint Specification
    • Intent Modeling
  • User Preferences Model (UPM)
    • Aircraft performance characteristics, pilot models, and company preferences
  • Operational Context Model (OCM)
    • Airspace configuration (e.g. airways, fix and airport definitions, sector boundaries,…)
Elicitation Process Methodology (II) – Top Down

Intent

Generation

Infrastructure

elicitation process methodology iii bottom up

Trajectory Prediction

Flight Intent

Aircraft Intent

Airborne

Predicted Trajectory

Intent

Generation

Infrastructure

Trajectory

Computation

Infrastructure

Elicitation Process Methodology (III) – Bottom Up

Flow-down aircraft intent generation capabilities

Flow-up trajectory computation capabilities

elicitation process methodology iii bottom up15

Trajectory Engine (TE)

    • Lateral and vertical path computation
    • Equations of Motion
  • Aircraft Performance Model (APM)
    • Type of APM (e.g. kinematical)
    • Input needed

Trajectory

Computation

Infrastructure

  • Earth Model (EM)
    • Wind model
    • Reference systems
Elicitation Process Methodology (III) – Bottom Up
elicitation process methodology iv requirements derivation

AIDM1

AIDM2

AIDM3

AIDMn

Elicitation Process Methodology (IV) –Requirements Derivation

Requirements consolidation process

AIDL structural requirements

Elicitation Reports

AIDMs Derivation

example fdps x
Example: FDPS -X
  • Which aspects of the aircraft motion can be affected by the AIDM in place (speed, configuration, vertical and lateral movement, throttle control)?

Speed, vertical and lateral profiles.

  • Which aspects are not covered but are needed for the computation of the trajectory (e.g. cost index, procedures for turnings, configuration or throttle input)?

Configuration and throttle decisions are embedded in the APM.

example fdps x18
Example: FDPS -X
  • How can each of those aspects be modified (e.g. vertical motion can be affected by controlling the vertical speed, the path angle or the altitude; lateral path using the bank angle and constant bearing segments)?

The vertical and longitudinal motion is defined using constant airspeed segment (conventional air mass climb/descents ISA/Mach). In climb/descent, the corresponding values of ROC/ROD for the aircraft type at hand are provided by the APM (BADA tables). These values are obtained assuming a constant speed(IAS or Mach) and maximum climb/idle rating for climbs/descents, respectively. The Flight Level/altitude profile can contain constant Flight Level/altitude segments but no other control over the path angle is available. The lateral path is defined using both the heading segments and curves over the Earth’s surface, such as great circles joining two waypoints. Bank angle is not considered (turn rate is used to model turns).

example fdps x19
Example: FDPS -X
  • How many types of speed, altitude, path angle, vertical speed, throttle input, etc can be used (e.g. speed can only be Mach or CAS)

Speeds: Ground speed (absolute aircraft speed measured with respect to the ground), TAS in knots or Mach, CAS

Vertical Speed: Pressure ROC/ROD

Altitude: Pressure altitude

Course: Magnetic Heading

preliminary results i
Preliminary Results (I)
  • An AIDL shall model FIVE behavioural aspects of the aircraft motion (AIDL instructions)
    • Lateral profile:geometrical path, course, bank angle
    • Vertical profile:altitude, vertical speed, path angle
    • Speed profile:airspeed, horizontal speed
    • Throttle profile:engine ratings
    • Configuration profile:high lift devices, speed brakes, landing gear
  • An AIDL shall have formal mechanisms to indicate how each of these aspects are specified (Instruction Specifier)
    • Airspeed can be CAS, Mach, etc;
    • Engine ratings can be maximum climb, idle, etc
    • Course can be bearing or heading, magnetic or true, etc;
preliminary results ii aidl primitives grammar rules
Preliminary Results (II) :AIDL Primitives & Grammar Rules

Motion Profiles

Configuration Profiles

Speed

Vertical

Propulsive

Lateral

SG

HSG

VSG

PAG

AG

VPG

TC

LDC

LDG

LPG

LGC

HLC

SBC

AIDL Alphabet

Set

SPA

ST

SBA

SHL

SSB

SLG

Law/Track

SL

HSL

VSL

PAL

AL

TVP

TL

BAL

CL

THP

HLL

SBL

Hold

HS

HHS

HVS

HPA

HA

HT

HBA

HC

HHL

HSB

HLG

Open loop input

OLPA

OLT

OLBA

OLSB

  • AIDL Lexicon
  • 6 instructions, each from a different group
  • Of the 6, 3 must belong to the motion profiles and 3 to the configuration profiles
  • The 3 motion instructions must belong to different motion profiles
  • Of the 3 motion instructions, 1 must come from the lateral profile
  • AIDL Syntax
  • Lateral instructions can only be followed by lateral instructions
  • Instructions from the configuration groups can only be followed by instructions from the same group
  • Instructions from vertical, speed and propulsive profiles can only be followed by instructions of the those profiles

HS

preliminary results iii
Preliminary Results (III)

HS (CAS)

  • Instruction: Hold Speed
  • Specifier: CAS
  • Constraint: Constant law of 280Knots

CAS=280

HC (GEO,MAG)

  • Instruction: Hold Course
  • Specifier: GEO,MAG
  • Constraint: Constant law of 175º

Magnetic Bearing = 175

example fdps x24
Example: FDPS -X
  • How do the switching between modes or instructions take place (e.g. they capture a certain type of condition)? Can they be customizable (e.g. user-defined relation between altitude and speed to end the climb phase)? Is it possible to define multiple conditions (e.g. AND and OR logic: finish climb when such speed is reached OR such altitude is reached; finish climbing when such speed is reached AND such altitude is reached)
    • The AIDM used by the FDPS -X TP considers multiple constraints in the same point (AND logic) and the possibility of defining OR-type combinations (e.g. whichever comes first or whichever comes last) to activate / deactivate the instructions .
preliminary results iv
Preliminary Results (IV)
  • An AIDL shall contain mechanisms to indicate the conditions for the changes in the aircraft behaviour (Instructions Triggers)
    • Triggers shall support different types of conditions for the activation/deactivation of the instructions
    • Triggers shall support the specification of multiple conditions.
    • Triggers shall permit the creation of mode switching logics, this is a “conditioned aircraft intent”
preliminary results v aidl expressivity mechanisms

f(λ,φ) = 0

Pilot event

t =t0

h=2500 ft

h=4500ft

OR

r=200NM

M=0.78

CAS=200knots

r>200 NM

h=4500 ft AND r<200 NM

OR

h=2500 ft

Bearing=210º

Preliminary Results (V): AIDL Expressivity Mechanisms

Trigger conditions control instructions’ execution interval

HS (MACH=0.65)

HA (PRE=22000 ft)

VSL (ROC=200ft/min)

HS (CAS)

HA (PRE)

HPA (GEO)

HS (CAS)

aidl example descent profile using aidl instructions

HS

HS

HS

HS

HS

HS

HS

Longitudinal

HA

HA

HA

TL

HA

AIRCRAFT INTENT

AIRCRAFT TRAJECTORY

Horizontal

280KCAS

180KCAS

Pilot event

h=4500ft

M=0.78

SBA

HBA

SBA

Capture of target bank

Capture of target bank

?

?

d

d

Roll-in anticipation

Roll-in anticipation

OPERATIONS

OP#2

OP#4

OP#5

OP#6

OP#7

OP#8

OP#9

OP#10

HS

TL

TL

TL

TL

TL

TL

TL

THP

THP

THP

THP

THP

THP

THP

OP#1

OP#3

Time

AIDL Example: Descent profile using AIDL instructions

TOD

A

CA

FL320

M .88

M .78

AoA 4500ft

AoB 180 KCAS

280 KCAS

? KCAS

AoB 280 KCAS

180 KCAS

N370945.72

W0032438.01

R?

110

075

Speed Profile

Vertical Profile

Propulsive Profile

Lateral Profile

future steps
Future steps …
  • Eliciting requirements for a common AIDL that can support trajectory synchronization in future Trajectory-Based Operations (TBO)
  • Development of a AIDL prototype that fulfill those requirements
  • Evaluation of the use of such an AIDL for trajectory synchronization comparing with other types of trajectory related information (e.g., flight intent, predicted trajectory,..)
  • Development of an standard, based on the AIDL prototype, for the exchange of aircraft intent information