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Semiconductor Device Physics. Textbook and Syllabus. Textbook: “Semiconductor Device Fundamentals”, Robert F. Pierret, International Edition, Addison Wesley, 1996. Syllabus: Chapter 1: Semiconductors: A General Introduction Chapter 2: Carrier Modeling Chapter 3: Carrier Action

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## Textbook and Syllabus

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Semiconductor Device Physics

Textbook and Syllabus

Textbook:

“Semiconductor Device Fundamentals”, Robert F. Pierret, International Edition, Addison Wesley, 1996.

Syllabus:

Chapter 1: Semiconductors: A General Introduction

Chapter 2: Carrier Modeling

Chapter 3: Carrier Action

Chapter 5: pn Junction Electrostatics

Chapter 6: pn Junction Diode: I–V Characteristics

Chapter 7: pn Junction Diode: Small-Signal Admittance

Chapter 8: pn Junction Diode: Transient Response

Chapter 14: MS Contacts and Schottky Diodes

Chapter 9: Optoelectronic Diodes

Chapter 10: BJT Fundamentals

Chapter 11: BJT Static Characteristics

Chapter 12: BJT Dynamic Response Modeling

Semiconductor Device Physics

Final Grade = 10% Homework + 20% Quizzes + 30% Midterm Exam + 40% Final Exam + Extra Points

• Homeworks will be given in fairly regular basis. The average of homework grades contributes 10% of final grade.
• Homeworks are to be written on A4 papers, otherwise they will not be graded.
• Homeworks must be submitted on time. If you submit late,

< 10 min.  No penalty

10 – 60 min.  –20 points

> 60 min.  –40 points

• There will be 3 quizzes. Only the best 2 will be counted. The average of quiz grades contributes 20% of final grade.

Semiconductor Device Physics

• Heading of Homework Papers (Required)

• Midterm and final exam schedule will be announced in time.
• Make up of quizzes and exams will be held one week after the schedule of the respective quizzes and exams.
• The score of a make up quiz or exam can be multiplied by 0.9 (the maximum score for a make up is 90).

Semiconductor Device Physics

• Extra points will be given every time you solve a problem in front of the class. You will earn 1 or 2 points.
• Lecture slides can be copied during class session. It also will be available on internet around 3 days after class. Please check the course homepage regularly.

http://zitompul.wordpress.com

Chapter 1

Semiconductors: A General Introduction

What is a Semiconductor?
• Low resistivity  “conductor”
• High resistivity  “insulator”
• Intermediate resistivity  “semiconductor”
• The conductivity (and at the same time the resistivity) of semiconductors lie between that of conductors and insulators.

Chapter 1

Semiconductors: A General Introduction

No recognizable

long-range order

Entire solid is made up of

atoms in an orderly

three- dimensional array

Completely ordered

in segments

What is a Semiconductor?
• Semiconductors are some of the purest solid materials in existence, because any trace of impurity atoms called “dopants” can change the electrical properties of semiconductors drastically.
• Unintentional impurity level: 1 impurity atom per 109 semiconductor atom.
• Intentional impurity ranging from 1 per 108 to 1 per 103.

polycrystalline amorphous crystalline

• Most devices fabricated today employ crystalline semiconductors.

Chapter 1

Semiconductors: A General Introduction

Semiconductor Materials

Elemental:Si, Ge, C

Compound: IV-IV SiC

III-V GaAs, GaN

II-VI CdSe

Alloy: Si1-xGex

AlxGa1-xAs

Chapter 1

Semiconductors: A General Introduction

From Hydrogen to Silicon

Chapter 1

Semiconductors: A General Introduction

The Silicon Atom
• 14 electrons occupying the first 3 energy levels:
• 1s, 2s, 2p orbitals are filled by 10 electrons.
• 3s, 3p orbitals filled by 4 electrons.
• To minimize the overall energy, the 3s and 3p orbitals hybridize to form four tetrahedral 3sp orbital.
• Each has one electron and is capable of forming a bond with a neighboring atom.

Chapter 1

Semiconductors: A General Introduction

The Si Crystal
• Each Si atom has 4 nearest neighbors.
• Atom lattice constant(length of the unit cell side)
• a = 5.431A, 1A=10–10m

°

°

• Each cell contains: 8 corner atoms 6 face atoms 4 interior atoms

a

“Diamond Lattice”

Chapter 1

Semiconductors: A General Introduction

How Many Silicon Atoms per cm–3?
• Number of atoms in a unit cell:
• 4 atoms completely inside cell
• Each of the 8 atoms on corners are shared among 8 cells  count as 1 atom inside cell
• Each of the 6 atoms on the faces are shared among 2 cells  count as 3 atoms inside cell
• Total number inside the cell = 4 + 1 + 3 = 8
• Cell volume = (.543 nm)3 = 1.6 x 10–22 cm3
• Density of silicon atom
• = (8 atoms) / (cell volume)
• = 5 x 1022 atoms/cm3

Chapter 1

Semiconductors: A General Introduction

Compound Semiconductors
• “Zincblende” structure
• III-V compound semiconductors: GaAs, GaP, GaN, etc.

Chapter 1

Semiconductors: A General Introduction

Crystallographic Notation

Miller Indices

h: inverse x-intercept of plane

k: inverse y-intercept of plane

l: inverse z-intercept of plane

(h, k and l are reduced to 3 integers having the same ratio.)

Chapter 1

Semiconductors: A General Introduction

Crystallographic Planes

_

(632) plane

(001) plane

(221) plane

Chapter 1

Semiconductors: A General Introduction

Crystallographic Planes

Chapter 1

Semiconductors: A General Introduction

Crystallographic Planes of Si Wafers
• Silicon wafers are usually cut along a {100} plane with a flat or notch to orient the wafer during integrated-circuit fabrication.
• The facing surface is polished and etched yielding mirror-like finish.

Chapter 1

Semiconductors: A General Introduction

Crystal Growth Until Device Fabrication

Chapter 1

Semiconductors: A General Introduction

Unit cell:

View in <110> direction

View in <100> direction

Crystallographic Planes of Si

View in <111> direction

Chapter 1

Semiconductors: A General Introduction

Greek Alphabet
• new
• zz-eye
• pie
• taw
• fie
• k-eye
• sigh
• mew