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Semiconductor Device Physics. Textbook and Syllabus. Textbook: “Semiconductor Device Fundamentals”, Robert F. Pierret, International Edition, Addison Wesley, 1996. Syllabus: Chapter 1: Semiconductors: A General Introduction Chapter 2: Carrier Modeling Chapter 3: Carrier Action

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textbook and syllabus

Semiconductor Device Physics

Textbook and Syllabus

Textbook:

“Semiconductor Device Fundamentals”, Robert F. Pierret, International Edition, Addison Wesley, 1996.

Syllabus:

Chapter 1: Semiconductors: A General Introduction

Chapter 2: Carrier Modeling

Chapter 3: Carrier Action

Chapter 5: pn Junction Electrostatics

Chapter 6: pn Junction Diode: I–V Characteristics

Chapter 7: pn Junction Diode: Small-Signal Admittance

Chapter 8: pn Junction Diode: Transient Response

Chapter 14: MS Contacts and Schottky Diodes

Chapter 9: Optoelectronic Diodes

Chapter 10: BJT Fundamentals

Chapter 11: BJT Static Characteristics

Chapter 12: BJT Dynamic Response Modeling

grade policy
Grade Policy

Semiconductor Device Physics

Grade Policy:

Final Grade = 10% Homework + 20% Quizzes + 30% Midterm Exam + 40% Final Exam + Extra Points

  • Homeworks will be given in fairly regular basis. The average of homework grades contributes 10% of final grade.
  • Homeworks are to be written on A4 papers, otherwise they will not be graded.
  • Homeworks must be submitted on time. If you submit late,

< 10 min.  No penalty

10 – 60 min.  –20 points

> 60 min.  –40 points

  • There will be 3 quizzes. Only the best 2 will be counted. The average of quiz grades contributes 20% of final grade.
grade policy1
Grade Policy

Semiconductor Device Physics

  • Heading of Homework Papers (Required)

Grade Policy:

  • Midterm and final exam schedule will be announced in time.
  • Make up of quizzes and exams will be held one week after the schedule of the respective quizzes and exams.
  • The score of a make up quiz or exam can be multiplied by 0.9 (the maximum score for a make up is 90).
grade policy2

Semiconductor Device Physics

Grade Policy

Grade Policy:

  • Extra points will be given every time you solve a problem in front of the class. You will earn 1 or 2 points.
  • Lecture slides can be copied during class session. It also will be available on internet around 3 days after class. Please check the course homepage regularly.

http://zitompul.wordpress.com

what is a semiconductor

Chapter 1

Semiconductors: A General Introduction

What is a Semiconductor?
  • Low resistivity  “conductor”
  • High resistivity  “insulator”
  • Intermediate resistivity  “semiconductor”
  • The conductivity (and at the same time the resistivity) of semiconductors lie between that of conductors and insulators.
what is a semiconductor1

Chapter 1

Semiconductors: A General Introduction

No recognizable

long-range order

Entire solid is made up of

atoms in an orderly

three- dimensional array

Completely ordered

in segments

What is a Semiconductor?
  • Semiconductors are some of the purest solid materials in existence, because any trace of impurity atoms called “dopants” can change the electrical properties of semiconductors drastically.
  • Unintentional impurity level: 1 impurity atom per 109 semiconductor atom.
  • Intentional impurity ranging from 1 per 108 to 1 per 103.

polycrystalline amorphous crystalline

  • Most devices fabricated today employ crystalline semiconductors.
semiconductor materials

Chapter 1

Semiconductors: A General Introduction

Semiconductor Materials

Elemental:Si, Ge, C

Compound: IV-IV SiC

III-V GaAs, GaN

II-VI CdSe

Alloy: Si1-xGex

AlxGa1-xAs

from hydrogen to silicon

Chapter 1

Semiconductors: A General Introduction

From Hydrogen to Silicon
the silicon atom

Chapter 1

Semiconductors: A General Introduction

The Silicon Atom
  • 14 electrons occupying the first 3 energy levels:
    • 1s, 2s, 2p orbitals are filled by 10 electrons.
    • 3s, 3p orbitals filled by 4 electrons.
  • To minimize the overall energy, the 3s and 3p orbitals hybridize to form four tetrahedral 3sp orbital.
  • Each has one electron and is capable of forming a bond with a neighboring atom.
the si crystal

Chapter 1

Semiconductors: A General Introduction

The Si Crystal
  • Each Si atom has 4 nearest neighbors.
  • Atom lattice constant(length of the unit cell side)
  • a = 5.431A, 1A=10–10m

°

°

  • Each cell contains: 8 corner atoms 6 face atoms 4 interior atoms

a

“Diamond Lattice”

how many silicon atoms per cm 3

Chapter 1

Semiconductors: A General Introduction

How Many Silicon Atoms per cm–3?
  • Number of atoms in a unit cell:
    • 4 atoms completely inside cell
    • Each of the 8 atoms on corners are shared among 8 cells  count as 1 atom inside cell
    • Each of the 6 atoms on the faces are shared among 2 cells  count as 3 atoms inside cell
    • Total number inside the cell = 4 + 1 + 3 = 8
    • Cell volume = (.543 nm)3 = 1.6 x 10–22 cm3
    • Density of silicon atom
    • = (8 atoms) / (cell volume)
    • = 5 x 1022 atoms/cm3
compound semiconductors

Chapter 1

Semiconductors: A General Introduction

Compound Semiconductors
  • “Zincblende” structure
  • III-V compound semiconductors: GaAs, GaP, GaN, etc.
crystallographic notation

Chapter 1

Semiconductors: A General Introduction

Crystallographic Notation

Miller Indices

h: inverse x-intercept of plane

k: inverse y-intercept of plane

l: inverse z-intercept of plane

(h, k and l are reduced to 3 integers having the same ratio.)

crystallographic planes

Chapter 1

Semiconductors: A General Introduction

Crystallographic Planes

_

(632) plane

(001) plane

(221) plane

crystallographic planes1

Chapter 1

Semiconductors: A General Introduction

Crystallographic Planes
crystallographic planes of si wafers

Chapter 1

Semiconductors: A General Introduction

Crystallographic Planes of Si Wafers
  • Silicon wafers are usually cut along a {100} plane with a flat or notch to orient the wafer during integrated-circuit fabrication.
  • The facing surface is polished and etched yielding mirror-like finish.
crystal growth until device fabrication

Chapter 1

Semiconductors: A General Introduction

Crystal Growth Until Device Fabrication
crystallographic planes of si

Chapter 1

Semiconductors: A General Introduction

Unit cell:

View in <110> direction

View in <100> direction

Crystallographic Planes of Si

View in <111> direction

greek alphabet

Chapter 1

Semiconductors: A General Introduction

Greek Alphabet
  • new
  • zz-eye
  • pie
  • taw
  • fie
  • k-eye
  • sigh
  • mew