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Osher Lifelong Learning Institute at CSU East Bay Kevin P. Dincher www.kevindincher.com. The Worst Hard Time. The Dirty 30s. Big mountains and large bodies of water Limit, separate, define, protect, secure Major rivers Unite, move Flat, open Spaces

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the worst hard time

Osher Lifelong Learning Institute at CSU East Bay

Kevin P. Dincher

www.kevindincher.com

The Worst Hard Time

The Dirty 30s

the revenge of geography kaplan

Big mountains and large bodies of water

    • Limit, separate, define, protect, secure
  • Major rivers
    • Unite, move
  • Flat, open Spaces
    • Easy movement, lack of definition, lack of security

Kevin P. Dincher

The Revenge of Geography (Kaplan)
the revenge of geography1
Kevin P. DincherThe Revenge of Geography
  • Plains Indians
  • Arikara
  • Hidatsa
  • Iowa
  • Kaw (or Kansa)
  • Kitsai
  • Mandan
  • Missouria
  • Omaha
  • Osage
  • Otoe
  • Pawnee
  • Ponca
  • Quapaw
  • Wichita
  • Sioux
the revenge of geography2
Kevin P. DincherThe Revenge of Geography
  • Plains Indians
  • Semi-sedentary
    • Lived in villages
  • Buffalo
    • Raised crops
    • Traded with other tribes
  • Horse
    • 1519: Cortés
      • 12 horses
    • 1539: Coronado
      • 558 horses
    • 1592: Juan de Oñate
      • 7000 horses
slide6
Kevin P. Dincher
  • Original range
  • Range as of 1870
  • Range as of 1889
    • Dark numbers indicate number of bison as of January 1st 1889
    • Buffalo Bill Cody
    • Ulysses S. Grant (1874)
    • Philip Sheridan (1875)
the revenge of geography4
Kevin P. DincherThe Revenge of Geography

Indian Removal Act (1830)

Trail of Tears

slide10
Kevin P. Dincher

1874: Black Hills Gold Rush

1849: CA Gold Rush

1859: CO Gold Rush

the revenge of geography6

The Indian Wars on the Great Plains

    • Dakota War (1862)
    • Colorado War (1863 – 1865)
    • Red Cloud’s War (1866 – 1868)
    • Sheridan Campaigns (1868-1869)
    • Great Sioux War (Black Hills War, 1876-1877)
      • Battle of the Little Bighorn (Custer’s Last Stand)
      • Wounded Knee Massacre (1890)

Kevin P. Dincher

The Revenge of Geography

Chief Quanah Parker of the Kwahadi Comanche

slide12
Kevin P. Dincher

Buffalo Soldiers of the 25th Infantry Regiment, 1890

Buffalo soldiers fought in the last engagement of the Indian Wars; the small Battle of Bear Valley in southern Arizona which occurred in 1918 between U.S. cavalry and Yaqui natives

slide13
Kevin P. Dincher

Buffalo Soldiers who participated in the Spanish American War

the long view of history

Farming the Great Plains

  • Manifest Destiny
    • Continentalism and America’s changing self-image
  • Immigration
    • Population changes and homesteading
  • Industrialization and the Gilded Age
    • America’s changing relationship with nature
  • Progressive Era
    • Reform and renewal
    • Conservation and Environmentalism

Kevin P. Dincher

The Long View of History
industrialization

First Transcontinental Railroad

    • 1862: Abraham Lincoln
    • 1869: Completed

Kevin P. Dincher

Industrialization
slide18
Kevin P. Dincher

First Transcontinental Railroad

slide19
Kevin P. Dincher

1860: 30,626 miles

1870: 52,922 miles

slide20
Kevin P. Dincher

1870 to 1880: added about 40,000 miles = 93,267 miles

slide21
Kevin P. Dincher

1880 to 1890: added about 70,300 miles = 163,597 miles

1860 to 1890: W of Miss. Increased from 2,175 mi to 72,389 mi

industrialization1

Railroads

    • Impacted Immigration
      • NY to CA
        • 6 days instead of 6 weeks
      • Great Plains

Kevin P. Dincher

Industrialization
industrialization2
Kevin P. DincherIndustrialization
  • Civil War
  • Demand for transportation
    • People
    • Materials/Munitions
    • Food
  • Demand for goods and food
    • Sewing machines
    • Canning and meat packing
    • Grain
  • Demand for immigrants
    • Cheap labor
    • Result: urbanization
  • Demand for natural resources
industrialization3

Post Civil War Boom (1865 – 1900)

  • Reconstruction Era (1865 – 1877)
  • Gilded Age (1877 – Titanic?)
    • “Railroad Boom”
      • Steel in western Pennsylvania
      • Coal and oil
      • Mining
      • Lumber
      • Cattle
      • Farming

Kevin P. Dincher

Industrialization
industrialization4

Post Civil War Boom (1865 – 1900)

  • Railroad Boom
    • Immigration and cities
    • Increased demand for manufactured goods
    • Increased demand for resources
    • Growing number of extremely rich people

Kevin P. Dincher

Industrialization
industrialization5

Immigration and cities

  • 1860 – 1870: US population grew from 31m to 38m
    • 2.3m immigrants (90 percent of them from Europe)
    • 1870: 5 percent of the U.S. population were foreign born
      • Immigrants comprised 20 percent of the labor force
  • 1870 – 1880: US population grew to 50m
  • Abundance of cheap labor … and poor people

Kevin P. Dincher

Industrialization
industrialization6

Immigration and cities

Kevin P. Dincher

Industrialization

1921: Emergency Quota Act

1924: Immigration Act

industrialization7

Immigration and cities

  • Abundance of cheap labor … and poor people
  • Impacts:
    • Prices of manufactured goods
    • Urbanization of America
      • Living conditions
      • Relationship with nature
    • Increased demand

Kevin P. Dincher

Industrialization
industrialization8

Increased demand for manufacturedgoods

  • Processed (canned) food
  • Food transported in
    • Extremely Poor
    • Middle Class
    • Extremely Rich

Kevin P. Dincher

Industrialization
industrialization9

Land “Speculation”

  • Great Plains
    • Suitcase Farmers
    • Consolidating Farms
  • Rockies, California, Northwest
    • Timber/Mining

Kevin P. Dincher

Industrialization
industrialization10
Kevin P. DincherIndustrialization

Increased demand for resources

Growing number of extremely rich people

  • Robber Barons
industrialization11
Kevin P. DincherIndustrialization
  • Robber Barons
    • Middle Ages, Germany
      • Tolls on the Rhine
  • Businessmen of the 1800s who used exploitative practices to amass wealth
    • exerting control over national resources
    • accruing high levels of government influence
    • paying extremely low wages
    • squashing competition by acquiring competitors in order to create monopolies and eventually raise prices
    • schemes to sell stock at inflated prices to unsuspecting investors in order to destroy the company for which the stock was issued and impoverish investors
industrialization12

John Jacob Astor (real estate, fur)

  • Andrew Carnegie (steel)
  • Charles Crocker (railroads)
  • Henry Clay Frick (steel)
  • Mark Hopkins (railroads)
  • Andrew W. Mellon (finance, oil)
  • J. P. Morgan (finance, industrial consolidation)
  • John D. Rockefeller (oil)
  • Charles M. Schwab (steel)
  • John D. Spreckels (sugar)
  • Leland Stanford (railroads)
  • Cornelius Vanderbilt (water transport, railroads)

Kevin P. Dincher

Industrialization
industrialization13

Gilded Age

    • Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner
      • The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today
      • Satire: serious social problems hidden by a thin layer of gold
      • In 1890, 11.5 million of the nation’s 12 million families earned less than $1200 per year
        • Average annual income of this group was $380
        • 60% of the nation lived below the poverty line

Kevin P. Dincher

Industrialization
slide36
Kevin P. Dincher

The Breakers, Newport, RI (1893)

Vanderbilt “cottage”

70-rooms with approximately 65,000 sq. ft. of living space

slide39
Kevin P. Dincher

The main house contains 178,926 square feet, 250 rooms, 43 bathrooms, 85 fireplaces, 3 kitchens, an indoor swimming pool and bowling alley

(Biltmore is still owned by the Vanderbilt family).

slide40
Kevin P. Dincher

Carson Mansion, Eureka, CA -- 16,200 sq. ft. and 18 rooms

slide41
Kevin P. Dincher

Hopkins Mansion, Nob Hill, San Francisco, CA

slide42
Kevin P. Dincher

Crocker Mansion, Nob Hill, San Francisco, CA (location of Grace Cathedral)

slide43
Kevin P. Dincher

Huntington Mansion, Nob Hill, San Francisco, CA

slide44
Kevin P. Dincher

Stanford Mansion, Nob Hill, San Francisco, CA

industrialization14

Gilded Age

    • Economic boom
    • Political corruption
    • 60% living below poverty level
    • Natural resources

Kevin P. Dincher

Industrialization
industrialization15

Land Management?

Before 1870’s:“wholesale giveaway”

    • Homesteading
    • Public Auction
    • Cheap sales/lease

Kevin P. Dincher

Industrialization
industrialization16

Land Management?

    • 1871: Ferdinand Hayden (geologist)
        • Preliminary Report of the United States Geological Survey of Montana and Portions of Adjacent Territories; Being a Fifth Annual Report of Progress
        • Painter: Thomas Moran
        • Civil War Photographer: William Henry Jackson

Kevin P. Dincher

Industrialization
industrialization17

Land Management?

    • 1872: Yellowstone National Park created
        • U. S. Grant
        • 3,468.4 square miles primarily in Wyoming
        • Jurisdiction: U.S. Army
        • 1917: transferred to newly created National Park Service
      • Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem
        • The largest remaining, nearly intact ecosystem in the Earth's northern temperate zone.

Kevin P. Dincher

Industrialization
industrialization18

Land Management?

    • 1872: Yellowstone National Park created
    • 1878:
      • Timber and Stone Act (Hayes)
        • Permits cutting of time on public land to increase farm acreage
      • Special Agent, Department of Agriculture
        • Quality/condition of forests in the US

Kevin P. Dincher

Industrialization
industrialization19

Land Management?

    • 1872: Yellowstone National Park created
    • 1878: Special Agent, Department of Agriculture
        • Quality/condition of forests in the US
    • 1891: Forest Reserve Act (Harrison)
      • Presidential power to set aside reserves in the public domain managed by the Department of the Interior

Kevin P. Dincher

Industrialization
slide59

Land Management?

    • 1891: Forest Reserve Act (Harrison)
      • Presidential power to set aside reserves in the public domain managed by the Department of the Interior
      • National Forests
        • Harrison: 13 million acres
        • Cleveland: 25 million acres
        • McKinley: 7 million acres

Kevin P. Dincher

industrialization20

Land Management?

    • 1872: Yellowstone National Park created
    • 1878: Special Agent, Department of Agriculture
    • 1891: Forest Reserve Act (Harrison)
    • 1892: Sierra Club established by John Muir

Kevin P. Dincher

Industrialization
progressive era 1890 1920

Era of Reform

    • Politics
    • Labor and Work Conditions
    • Social Issues
    • Cities
    • Land/Resource Management
      • Conservation and Environmentalism

Kevin P. Dincher

Progressive Era (1890 – 1920)
john muir 1838 1914

1849: emigrated to US

  • 1860: University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • 1864 – 1866: Canada
  • 1868: San Francisco and Yosemite

Kevin P. Dincher

John Muir (1838 – 1914)

http://youtu.be/AFizUMvZTI0

john muir 1838 19141

"We are now in the mountains and they are in us, kindling enthusiasm, making every nerve quiver, filling every pore and cell of us."

Kevin P. Dincher

John Muir (1838 – 1914)
john muir 1838 19142

"No temple made with hands can compare with Yosemite... The grandest of all special temples of Nature."

Kevin P. Dincher

John Muir (1838 – 1914)
john muir 1838 19143

First Summer in the Sierra (1911).

Muir's biographer, Frederick Turner: "blazes from the page with the authentic force of a conversion experience."

Kevin P. Dincher

John Muir (1838 – 1914)
  • 1871: Ralph Waldo Emerson -- Tanscendentalism
  • Inherent goodness of both people and nature
  • Institutions—particularly organized religion and political parties—ultimately corrupt the purity of the individual
  • "individualityand freedom
  • The ability for humankind to realize almost anything
  • The relationship between the soul and the surrounding world
john muir 1838 19144
Kevin P. Dincher

We all flow from one fountain—Soul. All are expressions of one love. God does not appear, and flow out, only from narrow chinks and round bored wells here and there in favored races and places, but He flows in grand undivided currents, shoreless and boundless over creeds and forms and all kinds of civilizations and peoples and beasts, saturating all and fountainizing all.“

Letter to Catharine Merrill from New Sentinel Hotel, Yosemite Valley (9 June 1872);

John Muir (1838 – 1914)
john muir 1838 19145

Activism: Yosemite

      • 1889: Editor, Century Magazine
      • 1890:
        • 2 articles: another Yellowstone
        • Congress: legislation -- state control
      • 1892: Sierra Club founded
        • Maintain Yosemite size
        • 1902: National Park (rather than National Forest)
        • 1905: Congress transferred the Mariposa Grove
        • 1913: Hetch Hetchy Dam (Woodrow Wilson)

Kevin P. Dincher

John Muir (1838 – 1914)
preservation environmentalism

Conflict and Opposition

    • Conflict
      • Teddy Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot (US Forest Service)
      • Conversation
        • "forestry is tree farming"
        • without destroying the long-term viability of the forests
        • http://youtu.be/YPhG3Q6r_-M
    • Opposition
      • Against the Forest Service
      • 1907: Roosevelt designated 16 million acres of new National Forests

Kevin P. Dincher

Preservation/Environmentalism
preservation environmentalism1

The Great Fire of 1910

    • The Big Burn
    • The Big Blowup
      • August: 1,000 to 3,000 fires
        • Idaho, Montana, Washington and British Columbia
      • Firestorm burned over two days (August 20–21, 1910),
        • Burned 3m acres (Connecticut)
        • Killed 87 people,[including 78 firefighters.
        • The largest (although not the deadliest), fire in recorded U.S. history.

Kevin P. Dincher

Preservation/Environmentalism

http://youtu.be/3HEJlOUQGVg