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Welcome to the review of american history gilded age through imperialism

Welcome to the Review of American HistoryGilded Age through Imperialism

The gilded age 1877 1900

The Gilded Age1877-1900

While the rich wore diamonds, many wore rags. In 1890, 11 million of the nation's 12 million families earned less than $1200 per year; of this group, the average annual income was $380, well below the poverty line. Rural Americans and new immigrants crowded into urban areas. Tenements spread across city landscapes, teeming with crime and filth. Americans had sewing machines, phonographs, skyscrapers, and even electric lights, yet most people labored in the shadow of poverty.

What was the Gilded Age and its approximate dates?

A period of great industrial and economic growth

in the U. S. between 1877-1900 (End of

Reconstruction to the turn of the Century). The

U. S. grew faster than any other country in the

world at the time, and quickly became the choice

investment area by Europeans. A "golden“

period when capitalism flourished, laissez-faire

was government policy, and some reforms


Factors that made the gilded age a tremendous growth period
Factors that made the Gilded Age a tremendous growth period.

  • Tremendous growth of the American population

    B. An energetic population who was eager to work

    C. Great amounts of wealth from gold, silver, and oil

    D. An aggressive group of

    capitalistic entrepreneurs

    E. Great improvements in

    transportation and


Role of the railroads in the development of the united states
Role of the Railroads in the Development of the United States

a. Railroads helped connect the

eastern and western sections

of the U. S.

b. They helped people settle the

western areas faster.

c. Railroads could go almost


d. Railroads helped end Native

American control of the West

e. Time zones were set up in

the U. S. because of railroad


f. Increased Chinese and Irish

immigration as workers to build


The role of robber barons
The Role of Robber Barons States

They made the U. S. the industrial, economic, and transportation giant of the whole world. Their methods were brutal and aggressive. Profit and power were their goals.

Astor House

John D. Rockefeller- Standard Oil Company

Andrew Carnegie – Carnegie Steel Corp.

J. P. Morgan – N. Y. Banker and Financier

Cornelius Vanderbilt – Steamships and Railroads

Gilded age inventors
Gilded Age Inventors States

  • Cyrus Field - laid the first transAtlantic telegraph cable between the U.S. and Europe

  • Alexander G. Bell - invented the telephone, a metal detector, hearing

    devices, and made improvements to the telegraph

  • Thomas Alva Edison - patented over 1100 inventions including the light bulb, motion picture camera, a dynamo, phonograph, an improved


  • Christopher Sholes - first practical typewriter

  • Edwin L. Drake - drilled first oil well at Titusville, Penn. in 1859

  • Henry Bessemer - English inventor of the process to make steel from iron

  • Elias Howe - invented a sewing machine

  • George Washington Carver - many uses for peanuts and sweet potatoes

  • Frank Woolworth - Chain department stores

  • Aaron Montgomery Ward - first mail order business

  • John Deere - iron plow and later tractor

  • Cyrus McCormick - grain harvester

  • Elisha Otis - electric elevator for buildings. Made skyscrapers possible.

Gilded age immigration
Gilded Age Immigration States

  • American industrialists welcomed immigration and encouraged it. Immigrants worked cheaper and seldom joined unions or complained about working conditions.

  • The Irish came to America in the 1840s because of the potatofamine. The Chinese came to the U. S. for the gold rush in the 1850s, and as construction workers on the transcontinental railroad in 1864. In 1882 the Chinese Exclusion Act was passed forbidding most Chinese from entering the U. S.

  • Between 1890-1914 3.6 million Italians arrived in the U. S. in search of work and a better life. They created “Little Italys” in many major cities.

  • The OLD IMMIGRANTS before 1880 adapted to life in the U. S. rather easy. Many had money, created they own communities and became prosperous. Immigrants after 1880, the NEW IMMIGRANTS, found life difficult. Many of them were poor, illiterate and not prepared for the industrial U. S. They quickly became slum dwellers living in poor GHETTOS. E. Europeans.

  • From 1892 to 1954, Ellis Island processed nearly twelve million immigrants who landed there is search of economic, political, or religious freedom.

Gilded age labor organizations
Gilded Age Labor Organizations States

  • Labor unions were organized to improve working conditions, wages, and safety conditions by combining the workers and threatening to stop work if their demands were not met.

  • Major Unions of the Gilded Age:

    1. Knights of Labor (1872-1886) – Terence Powderly. Allowed

    women, Blacks, and unskilled workers. Violent strikes.

    2. American Federation of Labor (1886-1910) Samuel Gompers.

    Most successful of early unions. Avoid reformers and violent


    3. Congress of Industrial Organizations (1890-1910) split with

    A.F. of L. but rejoined in 1910. Led by George Meany.

    4. A.F. of L./ C. I. O – formed in 1910 when the two groups

    rejoined. George Meany became leader.

Major gilded age labor strikes
Major Gilded Age Labor Strikes States

  • Haymarket Square Strike – (1886) K. of L. started a strike and rally against McCormick Harvester Co. Anarchists joined the rally and threw a bomb killing 7 policemen and wounding others. K. of L. was blamed and its membership declined.

  • Pullman Strike - (1894) Eugene V. Debs of the Amer. Railway Union called a strike against the Pullman Co. over wages, and stopped trains. The company owners asked for government help to deliver the mail. Pres. Cleveland sent troops to break up the strike. Debs arrested and jailed.

Eugene V. Debs

Grover Cleveland

Haymarket Square Riot

Populists and their goals
Populists and their Goals States

  • The Populists were a group of reformers during the late 1800s who organized a political party, won elections, and worked for many changes in American social and political life.

  • Populist Goals

    1. 8 hour day for federal employees

    2. 10 hour work day for women

    3. End of child labor (12 and under)

    4. Increase in minting of silver money in circulation

    5. Use of secret ballot in elections

    6. Restrictions on immigration, particularly Chinese

    7. Direct election of senators

    8. Suffrage rights for women

Absolutely know this supreme court case
Absolutely States Know This Supreme Court Case!!!

  • Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896)

    was a landmark United States Supreme court decision upholding the constitutionality of racial segregation even in public accommodations (particularly railroads), under the doctrine of“separate but equal” treatment. This case set the precedent for segregation in the United States for the next 5o years, until 1954.

Native americans during the gilded age
Native Americans during the Gilded Age States

  • During the 1860s and 1870s, the Sioux fought hard to keep control of their traditional hunting grounds in the North and South Dakota area.

  • Settlers, prospectors, and the army all tried at times to push the Sioux out of their land.

  • The Sioux leaders were Red Cloud, Crazy Horse, and Sitting Bull. By the 1870s, these leaders led their people off the reservations in the hopes of returning to their traditional lifestyles.

  • 1876 - Custer’s Massacre at the Little Bighorn River by the Sioux led by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull.

  • 1877 – Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce tribe was captured by the

    U. S. Army as he tried to escape to Canada. “From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever.”

  • 1890 – Army massacre of nearly 300 Sioux men, women, and children at Wounded Knee, S.D. Last of major Indian wars.

Ideas that guided the u s from 1790s to 1890s
Ideas that guided the U. S. from 1790s to 1890s. States

  • Monroe Doctrine - closed the W. Hemisphere to European colonization

    b. Isolation - after the Civil War the U. S. was more interested in developing itself internally than in becoming involved in foreign affairs

Alfred t mahan and the imperialists
Alfred T. Mahan and the Imperialists States

Alfred T. Mahan wrote a book entitled, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History. In his book, Mahan suggested that every great world power in history had had a great navy to support it. This book became a favorite of Theodore Roosevelt and others who wanted to make the U. S. a world power. They pushed for the creation of a new all metal American navy and the creation of an American empire. This group became the biggest supporters of American imperialism.

What were the major causes of the spanish american war of 1898
What were the major causes of the Spanish-American War of 1898?

a. Spanish oppression of the Cuban people during a series of revolt between 1880-1895. American sympathy for the Cuban people.

b. American desire for Cuba - Issued Teller Amendment to deny this.

c. Yellow Journalism - Hearst and Pulitzer's newspapers printed news

stories that stirred up the public against Spain.

d. DeLôme Letter - letter from Senor Depuy DeLôme, foreign

minister to friend in Cuba, criticizing McKinley and the U. S.'s

involvement with Cuba.

e. Sinking of the Maine battleship in Havana harbor - ship was

sunk under mysterious conditions and Spain was blamed.

f. Imperialistic mood in the U. S. - T. Roosevelt and others favored a

war to show America's strength.

DeLôme Letter

Yellow Boys cartoon



Alfred Mahan

Remember the maine
“Remember the Maine” 1898?

The U. S. S. Maine

What were the results of the spanish american war and the treaty of paris of 1898
What were the results of the Spanish-American War and The Treaty of Paris of 1898?

a. Cuba got its independence from Spain

b. The U. S. defeated a European nation and became a world power

c. The U. S. acquired a colonial empire: Philippines, Guam, Hawaii, and Samoan Islands.

Treaty of Paris 1898

Emilio Aquinaldo


Samoan Islands

Roosevelt corollary to the monroe doctrine
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine Treaty of Paris of 1898?

  • In 1902 and again in 1904, Theodore Roosevelt had to use U. S. military forces to make two countries in the Western Hemisphere pay their debts to European countries to prevent the Europeans from invading the Western Hemisphere.

  • T. R called this policy the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. It said the U. S. might have to use force to make some W. Hemisphere countries behave in order to uphold the Monroe Doctrine’s practice of keeping Europeans out.

What were the reasons the u s felt the open door policy was necessary
What were the reasons the U. S. felt the "Open Door Policy" was necessary?

a. Several European countries had taken over land from the weak

Chinese govt. and created "Spheres of influences."

  • The U. S. wanted part of the profitable Chinese trade.

  • The U. S. also felt China should have control over its own land.

    b. Sec. John Hay sent messages to the European nations asking them to open up their "spheres" to all nations for trade and to restore Chinese integrity. When they didn't answer he informed the world press that they had agreed which forced them to comply some.

Spheres of Influence

John Hay

“Slicing the Chinese Pie

What were the reasons the U. S. was interested in a Central American canal? What were the two suggested routes?

a. 1. To shorten the distance for naval ships to travel and make it

possible to have a 2 ocean navy.

2. To make it more profitable for trade between the west coast

and east coast and with South America.

b. Through Nicaragua which was flatter but longer distance and through Panama which was shorter but more mountainous.

Panama and the canal zone

Roosevelt’s “Big Stick”

Traveling through the canal

Discuss how the u s obtained control of the land through panama to build a canal
Discuss how the U. S. obtained control of the land through Panama to build a canal.

  • The U. S. encouraged Panama to rebel from Columbia, and blocked Columbia's attempts to stop the rebellion.

  • After its independence Panama signed the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty with the U. S. giving the U. S. a lease on the 10 mi. wide canal zone for $10 mil. and $250,000 a yr. payment.

  • Panama later claimed that it was tricked into signing the agreement by Bunau-Varilla, a Frenchman, and the U. S.

Columbia in T. R.’s sights

Through the canal

Dollar diplomacy and the good neighbor policy
Dollar Diplomacy and the Good Neighbor Policy Panama to build a canal.

  • Dollar Diplomacy- the U. S. belief that American

    money, influence, or military might can accomplish anything the U. S. wants. Practiced by Pres. Taft

  • Good Neighbor Policy-attempt to create a better image of the U. S. with our neighbors in the Western Hemisphere by cooperation instead of bullying. Practiced by Pres. Wilson



How did the roosevelt corollary and dollar diplomacy affect u s relations with south america
How did the Roosevelt Corollary and "Dollar Diplomacy" affect U. S. relations with South America?

  • The Central and Latin American countries thought, and still think, that the U. S. tries to either buy everything it wants or uses its military might to force everyone to obey it.

  • They see the U. S. as the "Bully in the North."

Roosevelt and his “Big Stick” Policy