Introduction • Context of book chapter • Recognise complexity of issues • Not a ‘how to’ session- emphasis on evaluating current position especially in relation to young people
Definition Any incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive or threatening behaviour, violence or abuse between those aged 16 or over who are or have been intimate partners or family members regardless of gender or sexuality. This can encompass but is not limited to the following types of abuse: • psychological • physical • sexual • financial • emotional (Home Office 2012) Controlling behaviour is: a range of acts designed to make a person subordinate and/or dependent by isolating them from sources of support, exploiting their resources and capacities for personal gain, depriving them of the means needed for independence, resistance and escape and regulating their everyday behaviour. Coercive behaviour is: an act or a pattern of acts of assault, threats, humiliation and intimidation or other abuse that is used to harm, punish, or frighten their victim.” *
DAPHNE Research • Conducted during 2009-10, report published in 2011 • Partners; Newman, Alice Salomon University Of Applied Sciences Berlin and Lucian Blaga University Sibiu. • Spoke to Policymakers, Service Providers and those who had used services • Raised a number of significant policy, ethical and methodological issues.
DAPHNE findings- service users • Similar results from interviews in Germany UK and Romania • Respect for the rights of the individuals involved • Acceptance of the veracity of the circumstances described by victims of domestic violence • Availability and access to information that is accurate, relevant and simply written • Staff who are supportive, sympathetic and appropriately trained • Speedy access (through referral mechanisms as appropriate) to health, social care, education and legal services • Support to provide a degree of continuity in lives of dependent children e.g. continuation of their education • Advice, counselling and a ‘listening ear’ as necessary • Provision of emergency food, clothing, etc. • Provision that is geographically appropriately situated and offers a high level of personal security • (Tucker et al 2011)
The implications of this are that • DV policy needs to incorporate; • Criminal justice • Benefits • Health • Housing • Social ‘Care’ • Why? • Where do you think the gaps are?
Holes in the policy net- Some Examples • No recourse to public funds • Links to disability • Same Sex relationships • Services which reflect the international dimension • Services for young people outside the criminal justice context • Violence against Men
An Example; Hidden voices- Hague et al 2011 • Be informed about disabled women's needs.” • “Take advice from and consult with disabled women.” • “Provide accessible, well-publicized domestic violence services (including refuge accommodation) that disabled women are informed about.” • “Do not threaten disabled women with institutionalization if no refuge space is available.” • “Develop good accessible alternative accommodation, both temporary and permanent, plus support to access it.” • “Develop disability equality schemes, training and reviews with direct input from disabled women.” • “Take disabled women seriously and avoid being patronizing to us.”
Another example Girlguiding UK • Statistics from Girlguiding’s 2012 Girls’ Attitudes Survey showed that two-fifths of girls believe it is acceptable for a partner to make you tell them where you are all the time. • One in ten says it is appropriate for a partner to tell you who you can and can’t spend time with. • A fifth say it is acceptable for a partner to shout at you and call you names (21%) or send photos or videos of you to friends without your permission (17%). • One in five said it is okay for a partner to tell you what you can and cannot wear. • It would seem that these examples of controlling behaviour – all covered by the government’s new definition of domestic abuse – are an accepted part of relationships for too many girls. • http://girlsattitudes.girlguiding.org.uk/pdf/2025_Care_Versus_Control.pdf
Discussion points • How do we seek to ensure that issues of violence are given greater emphasis practically as well as rhetorically? • Is there more that we could/should do in working with children and young people to promote awareness / support ?