15. Chapter Fifteen. Target Costing and Cost Analysis for Pricing Decisions. Learning Objective 1. Customer demand. Political, legal, and image issues. Competitors. Costs. Major Influences on Pricing Decisions. Pricing Decisions. Learning Objective 2. Costs. Market Forces.

Download Presentation

Target Costing and Cost Analysis for Pricing Decisions

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

Costs MarketForces How Are Prices Set? Prices are determined by the market, subjectto costs that must be covered in the long run. Prices are based on costs, subject toreactions of customers and competitors.

Economic Profit-Maximizing Pricing Firms usually have flexibility in setting prices. The quantity sold usually declines as the price is increased.

Total Revenue Curve Dollars Total revenue Curve is increasing throughoutits range, but at a declining rate. Quantity soldper month

Demand Schedule and Marginal Revenue Curve Dollarsper unit Sales price must decreaseto sell higher quantity. Demand Revenue perunit decreasesas quantity increases. Marginalrevenue Quantity soldper month

Total Cost Curve Dollars Total cost increasesat an increasing rate. Total cost increasesat a declining rate. Quantity madeper month

Marginal Cost Curve Dollarsper unit Marginalcost Quantity wheremarginal costbegins to increase. Quantity madeper month

Determining the Profit-Maximizing Price and Quantity Dollarsper unit Profit is maximized where marginal cost equalsmarginal revenue, resultingin price p* and quantity q*. p* Demand Marginalcost Marginalrevenue Quantity made and soldper month q*

Price Elasticity The impact ofprice changes onsales volume Demand is elastic ifa price increase has alarge negative impacton sales volume. Demand is inelastic ifa price increase haslittle or no impact on sales volume.

Cross Elasticity The extent towhich a change in a product’s price affects thedemand for othersubstitute products.

Limitations of theProfit-Maximizing Model • A firm’s demand and marginal revenue curves are difficult to discern with precision. • The marginal revenue, marginal cost paradigm is not valid for all forms of markets. • Marginal cost is difficult to measure.

Role of AccountingProduct Costs in Pricing Exh. 15-4 Optimal Decisions Suboptimal Decisions Economic pricing model Cost-based pricing Sophisticated decisionmodel and informationrequirements Simplified decisionmodel and informationrequirements Marginal-cost andmarginal-revenue data Accounting product-cost data More costly Less costly The best approach, in terms of costs andbenefits, typically lies between the extremes.

Cost-Plus Pricing - Example Variable mfg. cost $ 400 Fixed mfg. cost 250 Full-absorption mfg. cost $ 650 Variable S & A cost 50 Fixed S & A cost 100 Total cost $ 800 We will use this unit cost information to illustrate therelationship between cost and markup necessary toachieve the desired unit sales price of $925.

Cost-Plus Pricing - Example Variable mfg. cost $ 400 Fixed mfg. cost 250 Full-absorption mfg. cost $ 650 Variable S & A cost 50 Fixed S & A cost 100 Total cost $ 800 Markup onvariablemanufacturingcost Price = cost + (markup percentage × cost) Price = $400 + (131.25% × $400) = $925

Cost-Plus Pricing - Example Markup ontotal var. cost As cost baseincreases, therequired markuppercentagedeclines. Variable mfg. cost $ 400 Fixed mfg. cost 250 Full-absorption mfg. cost $ 650 Variable S & A cost 50 Fixed S & A cost 100 Total cost $ 800 Price = cost + (markup percentage × cost) Price = $450 + (105.56% × $450) = $925

Cost-Plus Pricing - Example Markup onfull mfg. cost As cost baseincreases, therequired markuppercentagedeclines. Variable mfg. cost $ 400 Fixed mfg. cost 250 Full-absorption mfg. cost $ 650 Variable S & A cost 50 Fixed S & A cost 100 Total cost $ 800 Price = cost + (markup percentage × cost) Price = $650 + (42.31% × $650) = $925

Cost-Plus Pricing - Example Markup ontotal cost As cost baseincreases, therequired markuppercentagedeclines. Variable mfg. cost $ 400 Fixed mfg. cost 250 Full-absorption mfg. cost $ 650 Variable S & A cost 50 Fixed S & A cost 100 Total cost $ 800 Price = cost + (markup percentage × cost) Price = $800 + (15.63% × $800) = $925

Advantages Do not obscure cost behavior patterns. Do not require fixed cost allocations. More useful for managers. Disadvantage Fixed costs may be overlooked in pricing decisions, resulting in prices that are too low to cover total costs. Variable-Cost Pricing Formulas

Advantages Price covers all costs. Perceived as equitable. Comparison with competitors. Absorption cost used for external reporting. Disadvantages Full-absorption unit price obscures the distinction between variable and fixed costs. Absorption-Cost Pricing Formulas

Determining the Markup:Return-on-Investment Pricing Recall the example using a 131.25 percent markupon variable manufacturing cost. Price = cost + (markup percentage × cost) Price = $400 + (131.25% × $400) = $925 Let’s solve for the 131.25 percent markup. Investedcapital is $300,000, the desired ROI is 20 percent,and annual sales volume is 480 units.

Income Invested Capital ROI = Income $300,000 20% = Determining the Markup:Return-on-Investment Pricing Step 1: Solve for the income thatwill result in an ROI of 20 percent. Income = 20% × $300,000 Income = $60,000

Determining the Markup:Return-on-Investment Pricing Step 2: Recall the unit cost information below.Solve for the unit sales price necessary to result in an income of $60,000. Variable mfg. cost $ 400 Fixed mfg. cost 250 Full-absorption mfg. cost $ 650 Variable S & A cost 50 Fixed S & A cost 100 Total cost $ 800

Determining the Markup:Return-on-Investment Pricing Step 2: Solve for the unit sales price necessary to result in an income of $60,000. 480 units × (Unit profit margin) = $60,000 480 units × (Unit sales price - $800 unit cost) = $60,000 $60,000 480 units Unit sales price - $800 unit cost = Unit sales price - $800 unit cost = $125 per unit Unit sales price = $925

Determining the Markup:Return-on-Investment Pricing Step 3: Compute the markup percentage on the $400 variable manufacturing cost. Markuppercentage Unit sales price - Unit variable cost Unit variable cost = Markuppercentage $925 per unit - $400 per unit $400 per unit = Markuppercentage = 131.25 percent

Strategic Pricing of New Products • Uncertainties make pricing difficult. • Production costs. • Market acceptance. • Pricing Strategies: • Skimming – initial price is high with intent to gradually lower the price to appeal to a broader market. • Market Penetration – initial price is low with intent to quickly gain market share.

Target Costing Market researchdetermines the priceat which a new product will sell. Management computes a manufacturing cost that will provide an acceptable profit margin. Engineers and cost analysts design a productthat can be made for the allowable cost.

Price led costing Cross-functionalteams Life-cyclecosts Value-chainorientation Focus onprocessdesign Focus onproductdesign Focuson the customer Target Costing Keyprinciplesof targetcosting

Time and Material Pricing • Price is the sum of labor and material charges. • Used by construction companies, printers, and professional service firms.

Hourlylaborcost Overheadcost perlabor hour Hourly chargeto provideprofit margin + + × Material Charges: Total materialcostincurred Overheadper dollarof materialcost Total materialcostincurred × + Time and Material Pricing Time charges: Totallabor hoursrequired

Competitive Bidding High bidprice Low probabilityof winning bid High profit ifwinning bid Low bidprice Low profit ifwinning bid High probabilityof winning bid

Bidder hasexcess capacity Bidder hasnoexcess capacity Competitive Bidding Guidelines for Bidding • Low bid price • Any bid price in excess of incremental costs of job will contribute to fixed costs and profit. • High bid price • Bid price should be full cost plus normal profit margin as winning bid will displace existing work.