Minerals • Macro minerals (major elements) • 1. They are required in amount greater than 100mg/day. • 2. Include six elements: Ca, P , Mg , Na, K and Cl. • Micro minerals(traces elements) • 1. required in amount less than 100mg/day. • Cr,Co,Cu , F,I, Fe , Mn , Mo, Selenium and Zn.
Calcium • Sources: milk, and milk products,beans,leafy vegetables and egg yolk. • Absorption: • 1. Ca is absorbed by an active transport mechanism in the upper small intestine. • 2. Absorption requires Ca binding proteins in the intestinal mucosal cells.
Functions of Ca • 1.Unionized Ca: found in the structure of bones and teeth,acts as Ca reservoir. • 2. Ionized Ca: important for : • 1. transmission of nerve impluse . • 2. contraction of muscles with the presence of ATPase and troponine. • 3. Blood coagulation and milk rennin clotting. • 4.Maintance of cell membrane permeability for water and other ions.
excretion • 1. Most of Ca excretion is eleminated with faeces • 2. Small amount of Ca is excreted in urine (about 200 mg/day).
Requirements • 1. adult men and women :800mg/day. • 2.children , pregnant and lactating women: 800-1200mg/day.
Phosphorus • Sources: milk, and milk products, fish , meat,liver and kidney, leafy vegetables and egg yolk. • Absorption: • 1. it is absorbed by an active transport mechanism in the mid-jejunum and enters blood stream via portal circulation. • 2. absorption is regulated by active vitamin D(calcitriol).
Functions • 1. found in teeth and bones. • 2. helps in the formation of following cellular compounds: • A. nucleic acids. • B. phospholipids: lecithin, cephalin • C. phophoproteins • D coenzyme: NAD,NADP+ • E. high energy phosphate compounds: ATP,GTP • F. Cyclic AMP and cGMP.
Excretions • Mostly (90%) is excreted out in urine
Requirements • Same as for Ca
Magnesium • Sources: leafy vegetables(containing chlorophyll) • Absorption: • Occurs in the upper small intestine.
Functions • 1. found in the structure of skeleton and (bone and teeth) • 2. activates many enzyme e.gkinase, enzyme. • 3. required for the active transport of other cations (Ca,Na,K) across the cell membrane. • 4. important for muscles contraction , nerve impulse transmission and it decreases neuromuscular excitability.
excretion • Mostly 75% in faeces.
Requirements • For adult male (18 years) : 400 mg/day.
Sodium • Sources:table salt • Absorption:occurs in small intestine (ileum). It is nearly completely absorbed.
Functions • Maintenance of osmotic pressure and volume of plasma and extracellular fluid. • Transmission of nerve impulse. • Contraction of muscles. • Regulation of acid base balance.
Excretion • For adults: 5g/day.
Potassium • Sources: vegetables ,fruits and nuts. • Absorption: readily occurs in the small intestine.
Functions • 2/3 of P is present in tissues and body fluids. • About 1/3 is present in skeleton. • Maitenance of osmotic pressure and volume of intracellular fluid. • Transmission of nerve impluse. • Contraction of muscles. • Regulation of acids base balance.
Excretion • Mainly in urine.
Requirements • 4g/day
Chloride • Sources: table salt • Absorption : readily occurs in small intestine.
Functions • Chloride is the main extracellular anion .Together with sodium , it maintains the osmotic pressure and volume of plasma and extracellular fluids. • Chloride ions is essential for information of HCL in the stomach . • Activation of enzyme :CL- activates salivary and pancreatic amylase.
Excretion • Mainly in urine.
Requirements • For adults :5g/day.
Micro minerals (trace elements)iron • Sources : liver ,heart,kidney,,spleen,and fish • Sugar cane syrup,dates,and eggs • Absorption: • 1. it ocurrs in duodenum and the proximal part of intestine. • 2. in normal people ,about 10-15% of dietiary iron is absorbed.
Functions • 1. haemoglobin:which carries oxygen. • 2. myoglobin: which stores oxygen. • 3.respiratory enzymes: which use oxygen. • 4.cytochrome P450: which detoxicates drugs and oxygen.
Excretion • Excreted in the faeces is mainly exogeneous iron i.e dietary iron that has not been absorbed. • In males ,there is an average loss of endogeneous iron of about 1 mg/day.It is derived from desquamated cells from skin and the intestinal mucosa. • In fermales ,there is addition sources of loss ,due to mensturation and pregnancy. • Urine contain negligiblre amount of iron.
Requirements • Adult ;10mg/day • Pregnant women and lactating women: 30mg/day. • Menstruation : 18mg/day.
Copper • Sources: liver, kidney dried legumes and nuts • Absorption:mainly occur in the upper small intestine.
Functions • Haemoglobinsynthyesis • Bone formation • Maintainance of mylein of the nerve. • Metalloenzyme. • Cytochromeoxidase. • Ceruloplasmin • Superoxide dismutase.
Excretion • Mainly with bile • Urinary excretion is minimal due to large molecular weight of ceruloplasmin.
Requirements • Adults: 2-3 mg/day
Zinc • Sources: meat ,liver ,egg,,sea food, milk,whole grain product are good sources. • Absorption;zinc absorption occurs mainly in small intestine,especially from the duodenum.
Requirements • An adult male: 10-20mg/day.
Excretion • Mainly in faeces • Zinc deficeincy: • 1. hypogonadism • 2 poor healing of wounds • 3. poor apetite and retarded growth in children • 4. liver crrrhosis.
Iodine • Sources: table salt,fish,seafood,weeds,vegetables,grown near seaboard are good sources. • Absorption: • Occurs mainly form small intestine.
Cont. • Plasma iodine: organic iodine: 4-8mg/dl • Inorganic iodine: 1-2ug/dl • Functions: the only known function of iodine is the formation of thyroid hormone (T3-T4) • Excretion: mainly (70%) in urine • Requirement: for adult 100 -150ug/day. • Deficeincy: it results in thyroid hypertrophy( enlargement ) and groin.
Selenium • Selenium is an essential components of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase(GSH-PX)which catalyzes the reaction: • 2GSH+H2O2 GSH-Px GSSG +2H2O2. • This reaction acts as protective mechanism against the oxidative damage of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and fatty acids hyroperoxide by destroying them: • 1. RBCs ,it prtoecthaemoglobin for and red cell membrane. • 2. in liver , it is important for detoxifying lipid hydroperoxides and prevents necrosis. • 3.in lens tissues of the eye prevents its oxidative damage.
Deficiency • Defeciency of selenium (GSH-Px). • Haemolyticanaemia • Liver cirrhosis • Cataract • Cardiomyopathy • RDA-50 -200ug.keshan syndrome
Mangenese • Normal growth structure • Reproduction(spermatogenesis and ovulation) • Normal function of the central nervous system. • RDA: 5-6mg • Activate the arginase.
Cobalt • Cobalt is a component of vitamin B12 which is necessary for normal blood cell formation. • It gives vitamin B12 it red colour. • Deficiecy of vitamin B12 causes pernicious anaemia.
chromium • It acts only together with insulin to promote glucose utilization . • Its defeciency leads to impairement of glucose utilization by tissue. • Antiatherogenic( LDL HLD) .
Molybdenum • It is component of oxidase enzyme e.gxanthineoxidase and aldehydeoxidase.
Flouride • It increases the hardness of bones and teeth. • Its deficiency causes dental caries and osteoporosis. • Now- a –days it is suppied in drinking water. • Excess fluoride leads to fluorosis : mottling and discoloration of the enamel of teeth and changes in bones. • RDA; <2ppm